Linguistic Errors of Indonesian Air Transportation Hoax

Authors

  • Yune Andryani Pinem STTKD School of Aerospace Technology Yogyakarta

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.21512/lc.v16i2.8261

Keywords:

discourse, error analysis, hoax, online journalism, surface structure

Abstract

The research was to look at linguistics’ indicators of errors found in the body content of false news discourse mingling around air transportation issues that appeared 2-years before the presidential election in 2019. This qualitative study used hoax discourse from the turnbackhoax.com collection. Errors found in discourse were later generated according to linguistics’ domain in Dulay et al., as well as additional spelling errors and surface strategy taxonomy. Toward false news (n=44) found in the data source, errors majorly emerge in newly ungrammatical word formation with omission process equitably distributed in all linguistics’ domains. Errors in phonology portray localization in several dialects in Indonesia, while errors in morphology and syntax appear for language economy purposes. Primarily affected, lexicon and semantics is the domain with the most variant of surface structure errors (n=4). This is relevant to the hoax spread’s intended purpose to deceive the audience by modifying words in originally true news to give different content meanings. Omission resulting in word shortening in the form of blending and clipping with 98% occurrences is popularly used by millennials with a medium level of media literacy to communicate in the digital society environment. To enhance relatedness in readers’ thoughts and feelings, explain errors that deliberately happened in pragmatics and spelling. Being familiar with these indicators can alert the public to question a post’s credibility, thus encouraging the urge for clarification.

Dimensions

Plum Analytics

References

Adi, A. (2019). [Salah] Detik-detik pesawat gagal landing dan terbakar di bandara Kualanamu International Airport. Retrieved from https://turnbackhoax.id/2019/09/29/salah-detik-detik-pesawat-gagal-landing-dan-terbakar-di-bandara-kualanamu-international-airport/.

Al-Rawi, A. (2017). Viral news on social media. Digital Journalism, 7(1), 63-79. https://doi.org/10.1080/21670811.2017.1387062.

Andini, H. (2018). Pemerolehan Bahasa Indonesia pada anak usia 0-2 tahun: Kajian Psikolinguistik. Lingua: Jurnal Bahasa, Sastra, dan Pengajarannya, 15(1), 45-52. https://doi.org/10.30957/LINGUA.V15I1.429.

Aziz, Z. A., Fitriani, S. S., & Amalina, Z. (2020). Linguistic errors made by Islamic university EFL students. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 9(3), 733-745. https://doi.org/10.17509/ijal.v9i3.23224.

Azzimonti, M., & Fernandes, M. (2022). Social media networks, fake news, and polarization. European Journal of Political Economy, 102256. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpoleco.2022.102256.

Bastick, Z. (2021). Would you notice if fake news changed your behavior? An experiment on the unconscious effects of disinformation. Computers in Human Behavior, 116, 106633. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.CHB.2020.106633.

Bertau, M. C. (2017, August). Dynamic language forms: Characteristics, functioning, and effects for the dialogical self. Eighth International Conference on the Dialogical Self. Den Hag, Netherlands. pp 1-10.

Briandana, R., & Dwityas, N. A. (2019). Media literacy: An analysis of social media usage among millennials. International Journal of English Literature and Social Sciences, 4(2), 488-496. https://dx.doi.org/10.22161/ijels.4.2.44.

Dulay, H., Burt, M., & Stephen, K. (1982). Language Two. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Febrylian, B. (2018). [Hoax] Foto e-tiket dengan nama Rizieq Shihab. Retrieved from https://turnbackhoax.id/2018/03/19/hoax-foto-e-ticket-dengan-nama-rizieq-shihab/.

Gunther, R., Beck, P. A., & Nisbet, E. C. (2019). “Fake news” and the defection of 2012 Obama voters in the 2016 presidential election. Electoral Studies, 61, 102030. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ELECTSTUD.2019.03.006.

Hakim, L. (2021). Practices of online journalism on government agencies (A study on Jatim newsroom East Java communications and information services). Jurnal Penelitian Komunikasi dan Opini Publik, 25(2), 116-131. https://doi.org/10.33299/jpkop.25.2.3932.

Hapsari, A., Ginting, A., & Bram, B. (2019). Grammatical errors in written reflection of English education master’s program students. Bahasa dan Seni: Jurnal Bahasa, Sastra, Seni, dan Pengajarannya, 47(2), 96-105. https://doi.org/10.17977/um015v47i22019p096.

Harared, N. (2018). Slang created and used in 1cak.com site: A Sociolinguistics study. Humaniora, 9(2), 119-127. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.21512/humaniora.v9i2.4262.

Helsyanto, D. (2018). [Benar] Sri Mulyani beri klarifikasi terkait sajak yang berisi tentang keluarga, kehilangan Lion Air JT 610. Retrieved from https://turnbackhoax.id/2018/10/31/benar-sri-mulyani-beri-klarifikasi-terkait-sajak-yang-berisi-tentang-keluarga-kehilangan-dan-lion-air-jt-610/.

Hinkel, E. (2018). Error Analysis. In The TESOL Encyclopedia of English Language Teaching (pp. 1–5). https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118784235.EELT0058.

Indriani, S. (2019). Students’ errors in using the simple present tense at Polytechnic ATI Padang. Lingua Cultura, 13(3), 217-221. https://doi.org/10.21512/LC.V13I3.5840.

Izazi, Z. Z., & Tengku-Sepora, T. M. (2020). Slangs on social media: Variations among Malay language users on twitter. Pertanika Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 28(1), 17-34.

Jost, P. J., Pünder, J., & Schulze-Lohoff, I. (2020). Fake news - Does perception matter more than the truth? Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics, 85, 101513. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socec.2020.101513.

Khairil, M. (2017). (Hoax) Pt dijual ke China. Retrieved from https://turnbackhoax.id/2017/04/28/hoax-pt-di-dijual-ke-china/.

Kusuma, I., & Anam, M. K. (2019). Javanese adjective intensifier diphthong in Ponorogo: Generative trandormational Phonology study. Lingua Didaktika: Jurnal Bahasa dan Pembelajaran Bahasa, 13(2), 154-164. https://doi.org/10.24036/ld.v13i2.106750.

Li, J., & Su, M. H. (2020). Real talk about fake news: Identity language and disconnected networks of the US public’s fake news discourse on Twitter. Social Media + Society, 6(2), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1177/2056305120916841.

Mattiello, E. (2013). Extra-gramatical morphology in English: Abbreviations, blends, reduplicatives and related phenomena. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.

McDowell, L., & Liardét, C. (2020). Towards specialized language support: An elaborated framework for error analysis. English for Specific Purposes, 57, 16-28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esp.2019.09.001.

McKinley, J., & Rose, H. (2018). Conceptualizations of language errors, standards, norms and nativeness in English for research publication purposes: An analysis of journal submission guidelines. Journal of Second Language Writing, 42, 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2018.07.003.

Nikonova, V. G. (2020). Conceptual equivalence of colloquialisms in cross-cultural cinematic discourse as a translation challenge. Вісник Кнлу. Серія Філологія, 23(2), 92-101. https://doi.org/10.32589/2311-0821.2.2020.223256.

Njuguna, J. (2021). Online-ready? Factor structure and internal consistency of a scale to measure students’ online journalism self-efficacy. Journal of Applied Journalism & Media Studies, 11(3), 381-405. https://doi.org/10.1386/AJMS_00046_1.

Pal, A., & Banerjee, S. (2019). Understanding online falsehood from the perspective of social problem. In Handbook of Research on Deception, Fake News, and Misinformation Online (pp. 1–17). https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-5225-8535-0.CH001.

Panwar, C., & Arora, A. (2019). Impact of fake news on readers’ usage behaviour for news items on Facebook and Twitter. International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering (IJRTE), 8(2), 2564-2568. https://doi.org/10.35940/ijrte.B1044.078219.

Pinem, Y. A. (2018). Encouraging healthy literacy: The interconnection between reading toward writing in social media. In C. I. Rumimpunu, D. Setiawan, I. S. K. Tehuayo, M. Patricia, N. K. Utomo, & N. E. Alamsyah (Eds.), Language in the Online and Offline World 6: The Fortitude (pp. 360–366). Surabaya: Petra Press.

Pinem, Y. A. (2021). Corpus-based analysis of online hoax discourse on transportation subject picturing Indonesian issue. Lingua Cultura, 15(1), 39-50. https://doi.org/10.21512/lc.v15i1.7067.

Pinem, Y. A., & Effendi, D. V. (2021). Readers’ knowledge and purpose for self-actualization affecting reading intention for hoax among aviation school academia. Jurnal Manajemen Dirgantara, 14(1), 77-85.

Ramaputra, S. (2017). [Hoax] Rekruitmen PT Angkasa Pura airport. Retrieved from https://turnbackhoax.id/2017/02/16/hoax-rekruitmen-pt-angkasapura-airport/.

Rezeki, T. I., & Sagala, R. W. (2019). Semantics Analysis of Slang (SAOS) in social media of millennial generation. KREDO: Jurnal Ilmiah Bahasa dan Sastra, 3(1), 36-46. https://doi.org/10.24176/KREDO.V3I1.3865.

Rofii, A., & Hasibuan, R. R. (2019). Interfensi Bahasa Batak Mandailing dalam tuturan berbahasa Indonesia pada acara parpunguan masyarakat Mandailing kota Jambi. Aksara: Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan Bahasa Dan Sastra Indonesia, 3(1), 16-24. https://doi.org/10.33087/AKSARA.V3I1.94.

Rozovskaya, A., & Roth, D. (2019). Grammar error correction in morphologically rich languages: The case of Russian. Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, 7, 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1162/TACL_A_00251.

Salam, A. (2018). The hoax phenomenon in Indonesian society: Observing anti-diversity memes since 2014. Humaniora, 30(3), 315-324. https://doi.org/10.22146/jh.38891.

Sasmito, A. (2018a). [Salah] Bayi selamat korban Lion Air JT610. Retrieved from https://turnbackhoax.id/2018/10/30/salah-bayi-selamat-korban-lion-air-jt-610/.

Sasmito, A. (2018b). [Benar] Heboh soal ‘Prasasti SBY’, begini sejarah bandara Lombok. Retrieved from https://turnbackhoax.id/2018/09/19/benar-heboh-soal-prasasti-sby-begini-sejarah-bandara-lombok/.

Sasmito, A. (2018c). [Salah] Capt. Pribadi adalah pengemudi pesawat yang mengijinkan Hj. Neno Warisman. Retrieved from https://turnbackhoax.id/2018/08/29/salah-capt-pribadi-adalah-pengemudi-pesawat-yang-mengijinkan-hj-neno-warisman/.

Shin, Y. K., Cortes, V., & Yoo, I. W. H. (2018). Using lexical bundles as a tool to analyze definite article use in L2 academic writing: An exploratory study. Journal of Second Language Writing, 39, 29-41. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JSLW.2017.09.004.

Spahiu, I., & Kryeziu, N. (2021). Grammatical mistakes of Albanian students in learning English as a foreign language. Linguistics and Culture Review, 5(S3), 814-822. https://doi.org/10.21744/LINGCURE.V5NS3.1366.

Subiyanto, A. (2010). Proses fonologis Bahasa Jawa: Kajian teori optimalitas. Bahasa dan Seni: Jurnal Bahasa, Sastra, Seni, dan Pengajarannya, 38(2), 154-165.

Susanti, Y. (2021). Pembelajaran dengan metode dwibahasa antara bahasa ibu dengan bahasa Indonesia dan bahasa Indonesia dan bahasa Inggris. Tangerang: Universitas Terbuka. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.35542/osf.io/xy7qc.

Tarigan, D., & Sulistyaningsih, L. S. (1997). Analisis Kesalahan Berbahasa. Jakarta: Dirjen Dikdasmen.

Tho, C., Setiawan, A. S., & Chowanda, A. (2018). Forming of dyadic conversation dataset for bahasa Indonesia. Procedia Computer Science, 135, 315-322. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.PROCS.2018.08.179.

Thomas, E. R. (2018). Sociophonetics. In Chambers J.K. & N. Schilling (Eds.), The Handbook of Language Variation and Change (2nd Ed., pp. 108-127). New Jersey: Wiley Blackwell.

Tsfati, Y., Boomgaarden, H. G., Strömbäck, J., Vliegenthart, R., Damstra, A., & Lindgren, E. (2020). Causes and consequences of mainstream media dissemination of fake news: literature review and synthesis. Annals of the International Communication Association, 44(2), 157-173. https://doi.org/10.1080/23808985.2020.1759443.

Ulfah, B. (2019). The analysis of pure borrowing technique in Indonesian translation of “Does My Head Look Big in This” novel. Language Circle: Journal of Language and Literature, 13(2), 114-121.

Ureta, A. L., & Fernández, S. P. (2017). Keeping pace with journalism training in the age of social media and convergence: How worthwhile is it to teach online skills? Journalism, 19(6), 877-891. https://doi.org/10.1177/1464884917743174.

Van Leuven, S., Kruikemeier, S., Lecheler, S., & Hermans, L. (2018). Online and newsworthy: Have online sources changed journalism? Digital Journalism, 6(7), 798-806. https://doi.org/10.1080/21670811.2018.1498747.

Wikanengsih, & Rostikawati, Y. (2019). Kemahiran anak-anak bilingual dalam menuliskan cerita ke dalam bahasa ibu (bahasa Sunda) dan Bahasa kedua (bahasa Indonesia). Lingua, 15(2), 215-222.

Wirayuda, A. W. (2019). Kota dan jejak aktivitas peradaban. Surabaya: Airlangga University Press.

Zaim, M. (2015). Pergesearn system pembentukan kata bahasa Indonesia: Kajian akronim, blending, dan kliping. Linguistik Indonesia: Jurnal Ilmiah Msyarakat Linguistik Indonesia, 33(2), 173-192. https://doi.org/10.26499/li.v33i2.36.

Zhang, T., Chen, X., Hu, J., & Ketwan, P. (2021). EFL students’ preferences for written corrective feedback: Do error types, language proficiency, and foreign language enjoyment matter? Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 660564. https://doi.org/10.3389%2Ffpsyg.2021.660564.

Downloads

Published

2022-10-21
Abstract 173  .
PDF downloaded 14  .