IoT Based Omni-Channel Consumer Conformity in Fashion Industry: Do Gender, Age, Monthly Income Still Matter?
PDF

Keywords

age
consumer conformity
gender
monthly income
IoT
omnichannel

Abstract

The research aimed to examine the influence of socioeconomic characteristics (age, gender, and income) on consumer conformity during the Internet of Things. A 7 items instrument using 7-likert scale for dimensions of consumer conformity in fashion industry for fashion consumers in Indonesia aged between 18 – 55 years old. Data analysis was performed on 470 responses using ANOVA Three-Way Test to find out if the socioeconomic characteristics are significant to the components of consumer conformity in fashion industry. This is considered the first research examining the influences of socioeconomic characteristics to Consumer Conformity. The results reveal that among the three characteristics, only age is found to be significant to Consumer Conformity. Therefore, to support the Consumer Conformity in fashion consumers, the marketer should pay attention to each age groups.

PDF

References

Akman, I., & Mishra, A. (2010). Gender, age and income differences in internet usage among employees in organizations. Computers in Human Behavior, 26(3), 482–490. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2009.12.007

Antonucci, T. C., Ajrouch, K. J., & Abdulrahim, S. (2015). Social relations in Lebanon: Convoys across the life course. Gerontologist, 55(5), 825–835. https://doi.org/10.1093/geront/gnt209

Asch, S. E. (1956). Studies of independence and conformity: I. A minority of one against a unanimous majority. Psychological Monographs: General and Applied. Psychological Monographs: General and Applied, 70(9), 1–70. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1037/h0093718

Asch, S. E. (1955). Opinions and Social Pressure. Scientific American, 193(5), 31–35. https://doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican1155-31

Auer, M. & Griffiths, M. D. (2018). Cognitive Dissonance, Personalized Feedback, and Online Gambling Behavior: An Exploratory Study Using Objective Tracking Data and Subjective Self-Report. 631–641. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-017-9808-1

Aziz, O., Gemmell, N. & Laws, A. (2016). Income and Fiscal Incidence by Age and Gender: Some Evidence from New Zealand. Review of Income and Wealth, 62(3), 534–558. https://doi.org/10.1111/roiw.12165

Baer, M. (2010). The Strength-of-Weak-Ties Perspective on Creativity : A Comprehensive Examination and Extension. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(3), 592–601. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0018761

Barajas-Gonzalez, R. G. & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2014). Income, neighborhood stressors, and harsh parenting: test of moderation by ethnicity, age, and gender. Journal of the Division of Family Psychology of the American Psychological Association, 28(6), 855–866. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0038242

Beneke, J. (2013). A closer inspection of the impact of perceived risk on purchase intention of premium private label brands: The effect of age, gender, income and racial group. Journal of Business and Retail Management Research, 7(2), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.24052/JBRMR/122

Bisht, S. (2013). Impact of TV advertisement on youth purchase decision - Literature review Abhinav. Journal of Research in Management & Technology, 2, 148–153.

Bond, R. (2005). Group size and conformity. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 8(4), 331–354. https://doi.org/10.1177/1368430205056464

Bu, O. B. & Go, A. S. (2008). Perceived trustworthiness of online shops. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 50(October), 35–50. https://doi.org/10.1002/cb

Caruso, P. (1996). Individuality vs. conformity: The issue behind school uniforms. NASSP Bulletin, 80(581), 83–88. https://doi.org/10.1177/019263659608058121

Casaló, L. V., Flavián, C. & Ibáñez-Sánchez, S. (2020). Be creative, my friend! Engaging users on Instagram by promoting positive emotions. Journal of Business Research, (November 2018), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2020.02.014

Casper, J. (2007). Sport commitment, participation frequency and purchase intention segmentation based on age, gender, income and skill level with US tennis participants. European Sport Management Quarterly, 7(3), 269–282. https://doi.org/10.1080/16184740701511110

Cheng, X., Gu, Y. & Shen, J. (2019). An integrated view of particularized trust in social commerce: An empirical investigation. International Journal of Information Management, 45(August 2018), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2018.10.014

de Pedraza, P., Guzi, M. & Tijdens, K. (2020). Life Dissatisfaction and Anxiety in COVID-19 pandemic. https://doi.org/10.2760/755327

Deshwal, P. (2016). Customer experience quality and demographic variables (age, gender, education level, and family income) in retail stores. International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 44(9), 940–955. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJRDM-03-2016-0031

Durand, R. & Kremp, P. A. (2016). Classical deviation: Organizational and individual status as antecedents of conformity. Academy of Management Journal, 59(1), 65–89. https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2013.0767

Elena-Bucea, A., Cruz-Jesus, F., Oliveira, T. & Coelho, P. S. (2020). Assessing the role of age, education, gender and income on the digital divide: Evidence for the European Union. Information Systems Frontiers. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10796-020-10012-9

Faith, M. S., Leone, M. A. & Allison, D. B. (1997). The effects of self-generated comparison targets, bmi, and social comparison tendencies on body image appraisal. Eating Disorders, 5(2), 128–140. https://doi.org/10.1080/10640269708249216

Feinberg, R. A., Mataro, L. & Burroughs, W. J. (1992). Clothing and Social Identity. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, 11(1), 18–23. https://doi.org/10.1177/0887302X9201100103

Fiorini, L. (2018). How artificial intelligence will change the future of bullion production. 42nd International Precious Metals Institute Annual Conference, IPMI 2018, 60–69.

Fukuda, Y., Nakamura, K. & Takano, T. (2005). Socioeconomic pattern of smoking in Japan: Income inequality and gender and age differences. Annals of Epidemiology, 15(5), 365–372. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annepidem.2004.09.003

Gee, L. K., Jones, J. J., Fariss, C. J., Burke, M. & Fowler, J. H. (2017). The paradox of weak ties in 55 countries. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 133, 362–372. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jebo.2016.12.004

Goethals, G. R. & Darley, J. M. (1987). Social Comparison Theory: Self-Evaluation and Group Life. Theories of Group Behavior, 21–47. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-4634-3_2

Granovetter, M. S. (1973). The Strength of Weak Ties. The American Journal of Sociology, 78(6), 1360–1380. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781412958479.n556

Hani, S., Marwan, A. & Andre, A. (2018). The effect of celebrity endorsement on consumer behavior: Case of the Lebanese jewelry industry. Arab Economic and Business Journal, 13(2), 190–196. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aebj.2018.11.002

Hernández, B., Jiménez, J. & Martín, M. J. (2011). Age, gender and income: Do they really moderate online shopping behaviour? Online Information Review, 35(1), 113–133. https://doi.org/10.1108/14684521111113614

Hu, H. hua, Wang, L., Jiang, L. & Yang, W. (2018). Strong ties versus weak ties in word-of-mouth marketing. BRQ Business Research Quarterly, 22(4), 245–256. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brq.2018.10.004

Isabela Casanova. (2015). Socioeconomic status enforced by fashion. Retrieved from https://prezi.com/xjegfmjeugol/conformity-in-the-fashion-industry/

Ivana, G.-I. (2018). Social Ties in Online Networking. In Social Ties in Online Networking. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-71595-7

Khan, N., Hui Hui, L., Booi Chen, T. & Yong Hoe, H. (2015). Impulse Buying Behaviour of Generation Y in Fashion Retail. International Journal of Business and Management, 11(1), 144–151. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijbm.v11n1p144

Kim, J. I. & Kim, G. (2017). Socio-ecological perspective of older age life expectancy: Income, gender inequality, and financial crisis in Europe. Globalization and Health, 13(1), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12992-017-0279-8

Kumar, V., Aksoy, L., Donkers, B., Venkatesan, R., Wiesel, T. & Tillmanns, S. (2010). Undervalued or overvalued customers: Capturing total customer engagement value. Journal of Service Research, 13(3), 297–310. https://doi.org/10.1177/1094670510375602

Kurniasih, N. (2019). Customers information behavior of indonesian personal shopper on instagram. Humanities and Social Sciences Reviews, 7(4), 237–244. https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2019.7430

Lascu, D.-N. & Zinkhan, G. (1999). Consumer Conformity: Review and Applications for Marketing Theory and Practice. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 7(3), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1080/10696679.1999.11501836

Latané, B. & Wolf, S. (1981). The social impact of majorities and minorities. Psychological Review, 88(5), 438–453. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.88.5.438

Levine, John M ; Russo, E. M. (1981). Majority and Minority Influence. In Social Conformity (pp. 12–54).

Ligh, C. A., Lett, L. A., Broach, R. B., Enriquez, F. A., Jordan, A., Percec, I., … Butler, P. D. (2020). The Impact of Race, Age, Gender, Income, and Level of Education on Motivations to Pursue Cosmetic Surgery and Surgeon Selection at an Academic Institution. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 145(5), 932e-939e. https://doi.org/10.1097/PRS.0000000000006734

McLean, S. A., Paxton, S. J., Massey, R., Hay, P. J., Mond, J. M. & Rodgers, B. (2014). Stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs about bulimia nervosa: Gender, age, education and income variability in a community sample. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 47(4), 353–361. https://doi.org/10.1002/eat.22227

Murphy, J. H. & Witt, R. E. (1975). Group conformity influence: A proposed measure. Journal of Social Psychology, 97(1), 115–121. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224545.1975.9923320

Orr, G. (2003). Review Diffusion of Innovations, by Everett Rogers (1995). Stanford University, (1995), 5. https://doi.org/10.1525/aa.1963.65.5.02a00230

Park, S.-Y. & Yang, Y. (2012). The effect of celebrity conformity on the purchase intention of celebrity sponsorship brand: The moderating effects of symbolic consumption and face-saving. Journal of Global Fashion Marketing, 1(4), 215–229. https://doi.org/10.1080/20932685.2010.10593073

Portillo, C. D. (2017). The Online Consumer: An Examination of Gender, Age, Income and Education as Determinants of Online Purchasing (Vol. 1). Northcentral University.

Princes, E., Manurung, A. H., So, I. G. & Abdinagoro, S. B. (2020). The Next Level of Purchase Intention. Journal of Critical Reviews, 7(16), 632–639. https://doi.org/10.31838/jcr.07.16.74

Ready, F. (2020). COVID pandemic puts spotlight on consumers ’ health plan dissatisfaction. In BenefitsPRO; New York. Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/trade-journals/covid-pandemic-puts-spotlight-on- consumers-health/docview/2404773263/se-2?accountid=14723

Reisenwitz, T. & Gupta, S. (2016). Brand Loyalty and Store Loyalty for Consumers Purchasing a Product Warranty in a Health Care Setting: An Investigation of the Differences across Gender, Age, and Income Groups. Journal of Business Strategies, 33(1), 1.

Rosander, M. & Eriksson, O. (2012). Conformity on the Internet - The role of task difficulty and gender differences. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(5), 1587–1595. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2012.03.023

Rose, G. M., Shoham, A., Kahle, L. R. & Batra, R. (1994). Social Values, Conformity, and Dress. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 24(17), 1501–1519. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1994.tb01560.x

Siddiquah, A. (2019). Effect of Gender, Age, Grade Level, Subjects, and Family Income on the Locus of Control of Secondary School Students. SAGE Open, 9(1), 0–5. https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244018823429

Standing, C., Jackson, P., Leppaniemi, M. & Karjaluoto, H. (2008). Exploring the effects of gender, age, income and employment status on consumer response to mobile advertising campaigns. Journal of Systems and Information Technology, 10(3), 251–265. https://doi.org/10.1108/13287260810916943

Tsao, W. C. (2014). Which type of online review is more persuasive? The influence of consumer reviews and critic ratings on moviegoers. Electronic Commerce Research, 14(4), 559–583. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10660-014-9160-5

Tsao, W. C., Hsieh, M. T., Shih, L. W. & Lin, T. M. Y. (2015). Compliance with eWOM: The influence of hotel reviews on booking intention from the perspective of consumer conformity. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 46, 99–111. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2015.01.008

Tseng, L. & Lee, T. (2013). Investigating the Factors Influence Tweens’ Purchase Intention through Peer Conformity in Taiwan. Advances in Management and Applied Economics, 3(3), 259–277. Retrieved from http://www.scienpress.com/download.asp?ID=646

Tümen, S. (2017). Career choice and the strength of weak ties. Central Bank Review, 17(3), 91–97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbrev.2017.08.002

Untaru, E. N. & Han, H. (2021). Protective measures against COVID-19 and the business strategies of the retail enterprises: Differences in gender, age, education, and income among shoppers. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 60(January), 102446. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser.2021.102446

Van der Schyff, K. & Flowerday, S. (2019). Social media surveillance: A personality-driven behaviour model. SA Journal of Information Management, 21(1), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.4102/sajim.v21i1.1034

Van Deursen, A. J. A. M., Van Dijk, J. A. G. M. & Ten Klooster, P. M. (2015). Increasing inequalities in what we do online: A longitudinal cross sectional analysis of Internet activities among the Dutch population (2010 to 2013) over gender, age, education, and income. Telematics and Informatics, 32(2), 259–272. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tele.2014.09.003

Wang, T. (2017). Social identity dimensions and consumer behavior in social media. Asia Pacific Management Review, 22(1), 45–51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmrv.2016.10.003

Wang, X., Yu, C. & Wei, Y. (2012). Social Media Peer Communication and Impacts on Purchase Intentions: A Consumer Socialization Framework. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 26(4), 198–208. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intmar.2011.11.004

Warner-Søderholm, G., Bertsch, A., Sawe, E., Lee, D., Wolfe, T., Meyer, J., … Fatilua, U. N. (2018). Who trusts social media? Computers in Human Behavior, 81, 303–315. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2017.12.026

Wu, P. C. S. & Lo, W.-K. (2017). Effects of product scarcity: The mediating role of consumer need for uniqueness and conformity. International Journal of Business Environment, 9(1), 34–50. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJBE.2017.084702

Yahia, I. B., Al-Neama, N. & Kerbache, L. (2018). Investigating the drivers for social commerce in social media platforms: Importance of trust, social support and the platform perceived usage. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 41(September 2017), 11–19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser.2017.10.021

Yamada, K. (2019). The effects of customer expectations for consumer behavior in reputation information sites. Procedia CIRP, 79, 684–689. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procir.2019.02.036

Yeon, J., Park, I. & Lee, D. (2019). What creates trust and who gets loyalty in social commerce? Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 50(May), 138–144. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser.2019.05.009

Zafar, B. (2011). An experimental investigation of why individuals conform. European Economic Review, 55(6), 774–798. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.euroecorev.2011.01.002

Hot Consumer Trends 2030. (2019). Ericsson. https://www.ericsson.com/4ae13b/assets/local/reports-papers/consumerlab/reports/2019/10hctreport2030.pdf

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2021 Array