Discovering the Prosodic Domain of Aceh Hakka Tone Sandhi
Keywords:Aceh Hakka, tonal inventory, tone sandhi, prosodic domain, c-command
This research investigates the tonal system of the Hakka dialect spoken in the Aceh province of Indonesia. The purpose of this research is twofold. First, it investigates the dialect’s tonal inventory and compares it to Meixian Hakka and the inventory found in Chen’s (2006) study. Second, it analyzes the Shang Tone Sandhi Rule (STSR) of the dialect and its prosodic domain. This study research article identified that there are six tonal values in this dialect: yinping MM, yangping LL, shang ML, qu HM, yangru H, and yinru L. There is one tone, shang tone ML that undergoes tone sandhi. The low falling tone, ML alternates to a mid-level tone, MM when it is preceded by any of the inventory’s tones. The tonal alternation rule, i.e., Shang Tone Sandhi Rule, operates in a multisyllabic domain and only the tone at the end of a domain is intact from tonal alternation. The STSR is not sensitive to the syntactic domain c-command relation of Direct Reference Hypothesis (Kaisse, 1985). It also behaves differently compared to the Guangxing dialect Yangping Tone Sandhi Rule that is reported in Chung (1989). As for prosody, the hierarchical domain of the rule in Aceh Hakka is bounded within the Utterance (U), which is different from the Yinping tone sandhi domain in Meinong Hakka (Tung, 2010), in which tone sandhi is blocked by the I domain (intonational phrase domain). Therefore, we postulate that the domain for Aceh Hakka Shang tone sandhi lies in the Utterance (U).
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