Indonesian EAP Students’ Vocabulary Level and Size: An Empirical Investigation

Authors

  • Fenty Lidya Siregar Universitas Kristen Maranatha (Maranatha Christian University)

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.21512/lc.v14i2.6465

Keywords:

vocabulary size, level, English, EAP

Abstract

The research aimed to know to what extent Indonesian EAP students master high and mid-frequency words (4000-5000). Besides, it aimed to know the vocabulary size of Indonesian EAP students. To fill the gap, the research examined 128 Indonesian EAP students from two private universities in Indonesia. To gather its data, the research employed the Vocabulary Level Test of Webb, Sasao, and Ballance, and the Vocabulary Size Test of Nation and Beglar. The research findings have found that the participants have not yet mastered the high-frequency words and the mid-frequency words from 4000-5000 wordfamilies. The finding also reveals that the mean scores of the students’ vocabulary range between 6000 and 10000. It implies that the previous learning of the participants has not yet facilitated them to learn important vocabulary from 1000 to 5000 word-families. Thus, although they have a big vocabulary size, they might face problems when trying to understand some texts. The research findings are expected to increase English teachers’ awareness in general and EAP teachers’ awareness specifically of the importance of facilitating their students to learn high-frequency words.

References

Akbarian, I. (2010). The relationship between vocabulary size and depth for ESP/EAP learners. System, 38(3), 391-401. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2010.06.013.

Cheng, J., & Matthews, J. (2018). The relationship between three measures of L2 vocabulary knowledge and L2 listening and reading. Language Testing, 35(1), 3-25. https://doi.org/10.1177/0265532216676851.

Clark, M. K., & Ishida, S. (2005). Vocabulary knowledge differences between placed and promoted EAP students. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 4(3), 225-238. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeap.2004.10.002.

Dang, T. N. Y. (2020). The potential for learning specialized vocabulary of university lectures and seminars through watching discipline-related tv programs: Insights from medical corpora. ELT Journal, 74(2), 144-156. https://doi.org/10.1002/tesq.552.

Dang, T. N. Y., Coxhead, A., & Webb, S. (2017). The academic spoken word list (Report). Language Learning, 67(4), 959-997. https://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12253.

Dang, T. N. Y., Webb, S., & Coxhead, A. (2020). Evaluating lists of high-frequency words: Teachers’ and learners’ perspectives. Language Teaching Research, 1-25. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168820911189.

Feng, Y., & Webb, S. (2020). Learning vocabulary through reading, listening, and viewing. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 42(3), 499-523. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263119000494.

Hadiyanto, A. K. (2019). Students’ collaborative story writing project in an extensive reading program. TEFLIN Journal, 30(2), 197-211. https://doi.org/10.15639/teflinjournal.v30i2/197-211.

Hagley, E. (2017). Extensive graded reading with Engineering students: Effects and outcomes. Reading in a Foreign Language, 29(2), 203-217.

Khodabakhshi, S., Daroonshad, Z., & Moini, M. R. (2014). Vocabulary knowledge assessment of Iranian EAP undergraduate students. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 98, 950-958. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.03.504.

Kilic, M. (2019). Vocabulary knowledge as a predictor of performance in writing and speaking: A case of Turkish EFL learners. PASAA, 57, 133-164.

Kurniawan, I. (2017). Assessing English students’ vocabulary size of Lampung State Islamic University. Humaniora, 8(4), 381-390. https://doi.org/10.21512/humaniora.v8i4.3909.

Kusni. (2013). Reformulating English for Specific Purposes (ESP) in Indonesia: Current issues and future prospects. SELT 2013 Proceeding, 1, 36-48. http://ejournal.unp.ac.id/index.php/selt/article/view/6765.

Kusumarasdyati., & Ramadhani, F. (2018). Vocabulary development of EFL undergraduates: A cross-sectional study. Proceedings Quality Improvement Innovation in ELT (COETIN). Malang, Indonesia. pp. 166-168.

Laufer, B., & Aviad–Levitzky, T. (2017). What type of vocabulary knowledge predicts reading comprehension: Word meaning recall or word meaning recognition? The Modern Language Journal, 101(4), 729-741. https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12431.

Li, M., & Kirby, J. R. (2015). The effects of vocabulary breadth and depth on English reading. Applied Linguistics, 36(5), 611-634. https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amu007.

Liu, C. Y., & Chen, H. (2019). Academic spoken vocabulary in TED talks: Implications for academic listening. English Teaching & Learning, 43(4), 353-368. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42321-019-00033-2.

Masrai, A. (2019). Vocabulary and reading comprehension revisited: Evidence for high-, mid-, and low-frequency vocabulary knowledge. SAGE Open, 9(2), 2158244019845182. https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244019845182.

Michel, J. F., & Plumb, E. G. (2019). Comparing receptive vocabulary knowledge and vocabulary production (Working Paper). Retrieved from http://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/handle/10125/67845.

Miralpeix, I., & Muñoz, C. (2018). Receptive vocabulary size and its relationship to EFL language skills. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 56(1), 1-24. https://doi.org/10.1515/iral-2017-0016.

Nation, I. (2006). How large a vocabulary is needed for reading and listening? The Canadian Modern Language Review/La Revue Canadienne Des Langues Vivantes, 63(1), 59-82. https://doi.org/10.3138/cmlr.63.1.59.

Nation, I. S. P., & Beglar, D. (2007). A vocabulary size test. The Language Teacher, 31(7), 9-13.

Nation, I. S. P., & Waring, R. (2019). Teaching extensive reading in another language. Abingdon: Routledge.

Nguyen, L. T. C., & Nation, P. (2011). A bilingual vocabulary size test of English for Vietnamese learners. RELC Journal, 42(1), 86-99. https://doi.org/10.1177/0033688210390264.

Noreillie, A. S., Kestemont, B., Heylen, K., Desmet, P., & Peters, E. (2018). Vocabulary knowledge and listening comprehension at an intermediate level in English and French as foreign languages: An approximate replication study of Stæhr (2009). ITL - International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 169(1), 212-231. https://doi.org/10.1075/itl.00013.nor.

Nurmukhamedov, U. (2017). Lexical coverage of TED talks: Implications for vocabulary instruction. TESOL Journal, 8(4), 768-790. https://doi.org/10.1002/tesj.323.

Peters, E., & Webb, S. (2018). Incidental vocabulary acquisition through viewing l2 television and factors that affect learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 40(3), 551-577. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263117000407.

Poedjiastutie, D., & Oliver, R. (2017). English learning needs of ESP Learners: Exploring stakeholder perceptions at an Indonesian university. TEFLIN Journal: A Publication on the Teaching and Learning of English, 28(1), 1-21. https://doi.org/10.15639/teflinjournal.v28i1/1-21.

Ro, E. (2016). Exploring teachers’ practices and students’ perceptions of the extensive reading approach in EAP reading classes. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 22, 32-41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeap.2016.01.006.

Romadloni, T. S. (2019). Vocabulary size development of English department students in State University of Surabaya. RETAIN, 7(2), 88-95.

Schmitt, N., Cobb, T., Horst, M., & Schmitt, D. (2017). How much vocabulary is needed to use English? Replication of van Zeeland & Schmitt (2012), Nation (2006) and Cobb (2007). Language Teaching, 50(2), 212-226. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444815000075.

Sudarman, S., & Chinokul, S. (2018). The English vocabulary size and level of English department students at Kutai Kartanegara University. ETERNAL (English, Teaching, Learning, and Research Journal), 4(1), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.24252/Eternal.V41.2018.A1.

Sun, Y., & Dang, T. N. Y. (2020). Vocabulary in high-school EFL textbooks: Texts and learner knowledge. System, 93, 102279. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2020.102279.

Umam, C. (2016). Awareness on the internal structure of morphologically-complex words and its relationship to vocabulary size. Celt: A Journal of Culture, English Language Teaching & Literature, 15(1), 62-74. https://doi.org/10.24167/celt.v15i1.415.

Webb, S., & Chang, A. C. S. (2015). Second language vocabulary learning through extensive reading with audio support: How do frequency and distribution of occurrence affect learning? Language Teaching Research, 19(6), 667-686. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168814559800.

Webb, S., Sasao, Y., & Ballance, O. (2017). The updated Vocabulary Levels Test: Developing and validating two new forms of the VLT. ITL - International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 168(1), 33-XX69. https://doi.org/10.1075/itl.168.1.02web.

Downloads

Published

2020-12-07