Functions and Strategies to the Integration of Multicultural Values in Textbook Discourse for Elementary School Students


  • Sultan Sultan Faculty of Languages and Literature, Universitas Negeri Makassar
  • Hasnawi Haris Faculty of Social Science, Universities Negeri Makassar
  • Anshari Anshari Faculty of Languages and Literature, Universitas Negeri Makassar



integration values, multicultural values, textbook discurse, school student


The research was designed to reveal two crucial issues in multicultural education, namely functions and strategies to the integration of multicultural values in textbook discourse. Content analysis was employed to generate systematic and objective findings. Data were collected from textbooks used by the fourth-grade students in Indonesia and published by the Ministry of Education and Culture, Republic of Indonesia. Data collection was performed using the read-and-quote technique. Data analysis consisted of identification, categorization, and interpretation. The results of the analysis reveal that (1) multicultural values represented in textbook discourse function to build students’ positive attitude towards individual, cultural, ethnic, and gender differences to instill an anti-discrimination attitude towards different ethnics, religions, races, and develop students’ pride in sociocultural diversity. (2) Multicultural values are internalized through fiction, story characterization, cultural products, songs, and ethnic philosophies. Sociocultural aspects, social problems, and characteristics of the students are identified as factors that may impact on the functions and strategies to the internalization of the multicultural values.

Author Biographies

Sultan Sultan, Faculty of Languages and Literature, Universitas Negeri Makassar

Department of Indonesian Language, Faculty of Languages and Literature, Universitas Negeri Makassar

Hasnawi Haris, Faculty of Social Science, Universities Negeri Makassar

Department of Civic Education, Faculty of Social Science, Universitas Negeri Makassar

Anshari Anshari, Faculty of Languages and Literature, Universitas Negeri Makassar

Department of Indonesian Language, Faculty of Languages and Literature, Universitas Negeri Makassar


Abdou, E. D., & Chan, W. Y. A. (2017). Analyzing constructions of polytheistic and monotheistic

religious traditions: A critical multicultural approach to textbooks in Quebec. Multicultural Perspectives, 19(1), 16-25.

Adel, S. M. R., & Enayat, M. J. (2016). Gender representation and stereotyping in ESP textbooks. The Asian ESP Journal, 12(3), 94-119.

Arphattananon, T. (2018). Multicultural education in Thailand. Intercultural Education, 29(2), 149-162.

Awayed-Bishara, M. (2015). Analyzing the cultural content of materials used for teaching English to high school speakers of Arabic in Israel. Discourse and Society, 26(4), 517-542.

Banks, J. A. (1993). An introduction to multicultural education. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Branch, A. J. (2020). Promoting ethnic identity development while teaching subject matter content: A model of ethnic identity exploration in education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 87, 1-11.

Cho, Y., & Park, Y. (2014). Textbook as a contradictory meltingpot: An analysis of multicultural content in Korean textbooks. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 36(1), 111-130.

Cobano-Delgado, V. C., & Llorent-Bedmar, V. (2019). Identity and gender in childhood: Representation of Moroccan women in textbooks. Women’s Studies International Forum, 74, 137-142.

Feng, W. D. (2017). Infusing moral education into English language teaching: An ontogenetic analysis of social values in EFL textbooks in Hong Kong. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 40(4), 458-473.

Fry, G. W., Chun, H., & Apahung, R. (2019). Responding to accelerating multicultural challenges: Comparative cultural democracy in Korea and Thailand. Multicultural Education Review, 11(4), 271-295.

Gebregeorgis, M. Y. (2016). Peace values in language textbooks: The case of English for Ethiopia student textbook. Journal of Peace Education, 14(1), 54-68.

Grant, C. A., & Ham, S. (2013). Multicultural education policy in South Korea: Current struggles and hopeful vision. Multicultural Education Review, 5(1), 67-95.

Guinness, P. (2015). Religion, community, and conflict in Indonesia: Reflections on Chris Duncan’s violence and vengeance. The Asia Pacific Journal of Anthropology, 16(1), 74-83.

Honna, J. (2012). Inside the Democrat Party: Power, politics and conflict in Indonesia’s presidential party. South East Asia Research, 20(4), 473-489.

Huang, P. (2019). Textbook interaction: A study of the language and cultural contextualisation of English learning textbooks. Learning, Culture and Social Interaction, 21, 87-99.

Ibrahim, R. (2007). Multiculturalism and education in Malaysia. Culture and Religion, 8(2), 155–167.

Ide, T. (2016). Critical geopolitics and school textbooks: The case of environment-conflict links in Germany. Political Geography, 55, 60-71.

Johnson, L., & Caraballo, L. (2019). Multicultural education in the US and UK in the 1980s and beyond: The role of interest convergence-divergence. Multicultural Education Review, 11(3), 155-171.

Krippendorff, K. H. (2013). Content analysis: An introduction to its methodology. California: Sage Publications.

Lee, J. F. K., & Li, X. (2019). Cultural representation in English language textbooks: A comparison of textbooks used in mainland China and Hong Kong. Pedagogy, Culture & Society, 1-19.

Luwihta, A. D. (2018). Analisis nilai-nilai multikultural dalam buku teks siswa mata pelajaran Pendidikan Agama Islam (PAI) Kelas VII SMP. Dinamika, 3(2), 109-132.

Maddison, S., & Diprose, R. (2017). Conflict dynamics and agonistic dialogue on historical violence: A case from Indonesia. Third World Quarterly, 39(8), 1622-1639.

Moleong, L. J. (1990). Metode penelitian kualitatif. Bandung: Rosdakarya.

Moran, P. (2001). Teaching culture: Perspectives in practice. Boston: Heinle and Heinle.

Muslim. (2016). Nilai-nilai pendidikan multikultural dalam buku teks Bahasa Indonesia untuk Siswa SMP. Riksa Bahasa, 2(1), 55-66.

Noe, W., Affandi, I., Malihah, E., & Sunatra. (2018). The dynamics of multicultural values of Banuroja community in building social integration a sociocultural ethnographic study in Gorontalo. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 28(6), 758-770.

Robinson, K. (2016). Communal peace and conflict in Indonesia: Navigating inter-religious boundaries. The Asia Pacific Journal of Anthropology, 17(5), 475-479.

Sakki, I. (2014). Social representations of European integration as narrated by school textbooks in five European nations. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 43, 35-47. https://doi.


Sleeter, C. E. (2010). Probing beneath meanings of multicultural education. Multicultural Education Review, 2(1), 1-24.

Vorapanya, S., & Dunlap, D. (2012). Inclusive education in Thailand: Practices and challenges. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 18(10), 1014-1028.

Xiang, R., & Yenika-Agbaw, V. (2019). EFL textbooks, culture, and power: A critical content analysis of EFL textbooks for ethnic Mongols in China. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development.

Zilliacus, H., Holm, G., & Sahlström, F. (2017). Taking steps towards institutionalising multicultural education: The national curriculum of Finland. Multicultural Education Review, 9(4), 231-248.