The Identification of Slurs and Swear Words in Bronte Sisters’ Novels
Keywords:slurs, swear words, gender, the Bronte sisters’ novels.
This research aimed at identifying the categories of slurs, presenting how swear words expressed in male or female characters of Bronte sisters’ novels, and examining the social status scale in presenting slurs. The research was a qualitative content analysis of which process was categorizing, comparing, and concluding. The researchers employed MAXQDA 2018.1 (the data analysis tool) for analyzing the samples of five female and male main characters of the novel of Emily Bronte (Wuthering Heights), Charlotte Bronte (Jane Eyre), and Anne Bronte (The Tenant of Wildfell Hall). The research has shown three out of nine Thurlow’s pejorative items (social personality, phallocentric, and sexist), the possible formation of social personality slurs, the identification of swear words for showing speakers’ emotional states, and the influence of social status scale on the expression of slurs. It proves that slurs and swear words are used to deliver a derogatory attitude. The sexist slurs are not only delivered from male characters to female characters, but it is also found in Catherine Earnshaw targeting Nelly although they have similar gender background (female). Slurs are found in the characters from both high and low social rank since the plot develops the relationship amongst the characters. One unexpected finding is the different swear words between the characters. Swear words found in the novel are not only dominated by the word devil, damn, or by hell, but also the word deuce and humbug. The varied swear words proves that the male characters do not dominantly produce swear words, but also euphemistic expression.
Al-khasawneh, F. (2018). An intercultural study of euphemistic strategies used in Saudi Arabic and American English. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 8(1), 217–225. https://doi.org/10.17509/ijal.v8i1.11466.
Allan, K., & Burridge, K. (2006). Forbidden words taboo and the censoring language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Allan, K. (2016). Pragmatics in language change and lexical creativity. SpringerPlus, 5(342), 1–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomphys.2007.08.010.
Anderlini-D’Onofrio, S. (2003). Bitches, witches, and sluts: Narratives of feminist empowerment in Caribbean Italian studies. Women and Language, 26(1), 44-51. Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/docview/198880384?accountid=14695%0Ahttp://athenea.upo.es/search/i?SEARCH=87554550%0Ahttp://sd2xc4na8x.search.serialssolutions.com?ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&ctx_enc=info:ofi/enc:UTF-8&rfr_id=info:sid/ProQ%3Asocabs&rft_val_fmt=info:of.
Balola, A. M. F. A., & Ibrahim, A. I. (2017). The portrayal of Heathcliff’s Character in ”Wuthering Heights”. International Journal of Social Science and Humanities Research, 5(4), 349–356.
Beller, C. (2013). Manufactured and inherent pejorativity. Proceedings of SALT, 23, 136–155.
Bianchi, C. (2014). Slurs and appropriation: An echoic account. Journal of Pragmatics, 66, 35–44.
Bowers, J. S., & Pleydell-Pearce, C. W. (2011). Swearing, euphemisms, and linguistic relativity. PLoS ONE, 6(7), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022341.
Bronte, E. (1995). Wuthering heights. In S. Davies (Ed.). England: Penguin Group.
Bronte, A. (1996). The tenant of wildfell hall. In S. Davies (Ed.). England: Penguin Group.
Bronte, C. (2006). Jane Eyre. In S. Davies (Ed.). England: Penguin Group.
Carnaghi, A., & Maass, A. (2007). In-group and out-group perspectives in the use of derogatory group labels: Gay versus fag. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 26(2), 142–156. https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927X07300077.
Corver, N. (2014). Recursing in Dutch. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory, 32(2), 423–457. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11049-014-9228-x.
Croom, A. M. (2013). Racial epithets, characterizations, and slurs. Analysis and Metaphysics, 12, 11–24.
Croom, A. M. (2014). Remarks on “the semantics of racial slurs”. Linguistic and Philosophical Investigations, 13, 11–32. Retrieved from https://philpapers.org/archive/CROROQ.pdf.
Elo, S., Kaariainen, M., Kansten, O., Polkki, T., Utriainen, K., & Kyngas, H. (2014). Qualitative content analysis: A focus on trusworthiness. Sage Open, 11, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244014522633.
Flores, J. K. (2015). Demeaning and use: A pragmatic account of slurs as instances of social deixis. Proceedings of the National Conference on Undergaduate Research (NCUR) 2015. Washington, USA. pp. 898–903.
Haryono, H., Lelono, B., & Kholifah, A. N. (2018). Typography, morphology, and syntax characteristics of texting. Lingua Cultura, 12(2), 179-185. https://doi.org/10.21512/lc.v12i2.3976.
Hedger, J. (2012). The semantics of racial slurs: Using Kaplan’s framework to provide a theory of the meaning of derogatory epithets. Linguistic and Philosophical Investigations, 11, 74–84.
Hom, C. (2010). Pejoratives. Philosophy Compass, 5(2), 164–185. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-9991.2009.00274.x.
Hom, C. (2012). A puzzle about pejoratives. Philosophical Studies, 159(3), 383–405. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11098-011-9749-7.
Hornby, A. S. (2015). Oxford advanced learner’s dictionary. In J. Turnbull, D. Lea, D. Parkinson, P. Phillips, B. Francis, S. Webb, V. Bull, M. Ashby (Eds.) (8th Ed.). London: Oxford University Press.
Janschewitz, K. (2008). Taboo, emotionally valenced, and emotionally neutral word norms. Behavior Research Methods, 40(4), 1065–1074. https://doi.org/10.3758/BRM.40.4.1065.
Jay, T., Caldwell-Harris, C., & King, K. (2008). Recalling taboo and nontaboo words. American Journal of Psychology, 121(1), 83–103.
Jay, T., & Janschewitz, K. (2008). The pragmatics of swearing. Journal of Politeness Research: Language, Behaviour, Culture, 4(2), 267–288. https://doi.org/10.1515/JPLR.2008.013.
Jikeli, G. (2009). “Jew” as a slur in German and French today. Journal for the Study of Antisemitism, 1(2), 209–232.
Johnson, D. I., & Lewis, N. (2010). Perceptions of swearing in the work setting: An expectancy violations theory perspective. Communication Reports, 23(2), 106–118. https://doi.org/10.1080/08934215.2010.511401.
Kilyeni, A., & Silaski, N. (2014). Beauty and the Beast from a cognitive linguistic perspective: Animal metaphors for women in Serbian and Romanian. Gender Studies, 13(1), 163–178. https://doi.org/10.1515/genst.
Miscevic, N. (2017). The semantic structure of pejoratives. Linguistik Online 82, 82(3), 49–64. https://doi.org/http:/dx.doi.org/10.13092/lo.82.3714.
Muhaidat, F. (2014). Literary contrasts in Jane Eyre: A mirror of the protagonist’s journey. Journal of Language and Literature, 5(2), 73–82. https://doi.org/10.7813/jll.2014/5-2/11.
Nasution, R. F., & Rosa, R. N. (2012). Swearwords found in chat room Yahoo Messenger. English Language and Literature E-Journal, 1(1), 84–93. Retrieved from http://ejournal.unp.ac.id/index.php/ell/article/viewFile/417/345.
Nejad, P. K., & Zohdi, E. (2014). Heathcliff, the 19th century Othello. Scholars Journal of Arts, Humanities, and Social Sciences, 4(6), 725–726. https://doi.org/10.21276/sjahss.2016.4.6.16.
Oles, G. C. (2016). Emerging voices: The exorcism of language: Reclaimed derogatory terms and their limits. College English, 78(5), 424–446.
Panjeri, F., & Carrus, S. (2016). Slurs and negation. Phenomonology and Mind, 15(5), 210–220. https://doi.org/10.13128/Phe.
Popa-Wyatt, M., & Wyatt, J. L. (2018). Slurs, roles, and power. Philosophical Studies, 175(11), 2879–2906. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11098-017-0986-2.
Rosette, A. S., Carton, A. M., Bowes-Sperry, L., & Hewlin, P. F. (2013). Why do racial slurs remain prevalent in the workplace? Integrating theory on intergroup behavior. Organization Science, 24(5), 1402–1421. https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.1120.0809.
Sahragard, R., & Meihami, H. (2016). An investigation into research methodology and research orientation of the studies published in Journal of Teaching Persian to Speakers of other Languages. Journal of Teaching Persian to Speakers of Other Languages, 5(1), 121–140.
Shehzad, A. (2013). Understanding gender politics in literature: A study of The Tenant of Wildfell Hall by Anne Bronte. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences MCSER Publishing, 4(11), 734–737. https://doi.org/10.5901/mjss.2013.v4n11p734.
Stephens, R., & Umland, C. (2011). Swearing as a response to pain - Effect of daily swearing frequency. Journal of Pain, 12(12), 1274–1281. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpain.2011.09.004.
Suryanovika, C., & Negara, I. M. (2018). Speech acts of the Bronte’s sisters’ characters. Humanika, 25(2), 75–87. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.14710/humanika.v25i2.20519.
Thurlow, C. (2001). Naming the “outsider within”: Homophobic pejoratives and the verbal abuse of lesbian, gay, and bisexual high-school pupils. Journal of Adolescence, 24(1), 25–38. https://doi.org/10.1006/jado.2000.0371.
Wang, C., & Dowker, A. (2008). Interpretation of animal metaphors: Evidence from Chinese and English children and adults. Child Language Seminar 2007, University of Reading, UK. pp. 226–235.
Yu, C. H., Jannasch-Pennell, A., & DiGangi, S. (2011). Compatibility between text mining and qualitative research in the perspectives of grounded theory, content analysis, and reliability. The Qualitative Report, 16(3), 730–744. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tpb.2014.02.003.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
a. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License - Share Alike that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
b. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
c. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.
All articles published Open Access will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download. We are continuously working with our author communities to select the best choice of license options, currently being defined for this journal as follows: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike (CC BY-SA)