What is A Questionnaire?


Questionnaire is the most popular of data collection method for business and management research. Questionnaire is the basic blocks of management research. Questionnaire is applied as a tool in which to repeat and specify research questions through face to face interview. The data is subsequently used to product analysis of responses.  Questionnaire is an aid for data analysis and data collection.

Questionnaire provides a formulated, objective and structured set of question to gain information from respondents regarding a predetermined topic. Question types are ranging from open responses to specific recorded responses. Questionnaire will from an integral part of the primary data collection process that includes observation, interviews and projective methods. There are nine steps involved in the development of a questionnaire:

  1. Determine the required information.
  2. Define the target respondents.
  3. Select the method(s) of reaching target respondents.
  4. Determine question content.
  5. Develop the question wording.
  6. Put questions into a meaningful order and format.
  7. Check the length of the questionnaire.
  8. Pre-test the questionnaire.
  9. Develop the final survey form.

The Purpose of the Questionnaire

The questionnaire have been imported from other social science research and used in different areas of management research by management consultants, market research, and academics. The information of questionnaire is generated to reach adequate decisions.  New survey methods have been developed applied and retained from which existing method have evolve complete questionnaire. The questionnaire fulfills four purpose in business and management research:

  • The primary fungction of the questionnaire is to gather reliable and valid information from respondents. Reliable and valid information is gathered through asking the right question to right people
  • The questionnaire should provide a logical structure data collection flows. In many research studies, those involve more than just a few people, all respondents are asked the same question in exactly the same order.
  • The questionnaire data processing and data protection is done to smoothly guide respondents to provide accuratee facts and options that is recorded during data collection
  • The responses must be carefully recorded in a safe and secure location for future reference. Appropriate data editing and analysis strategies can be determined through checking the actual and missing responses on the It needs to revisit or check originality of the raw data. The recorded answers on the questionnaire can be used to verify the originality of primary data.

Questionnaire Clasification

There are two types of question that would be asked on questionnaire. The first type is questions that depend on the type of response format. The second type is questions that have  the degree of freedom given to respondents (open-responses question and closed-responses question)

Open format questions or open-ended questions give audience an opportunity to express their opinions in a free-flowing manner. An ideal questionnaire would include an open-ended question at the end of the questionnaire that seeks feedback or suggestions for improvements from respondents. Qualitative questions fall under this category. Respondents are free to answer whatever they feel right and the questions do not have predetermined set of responses. Open format questions are included to get true, insightful and even unexpected suggestions.

One of the main advantages of including closed format questions in your questionnaire design is the ease at performing preliminary analysis. Closed ended questions can also be asked to different groups at different intervals to efficiently track their opinion about a product/service/company over time. Closed-ended questions can be further classified into 7 types.These questions are ideal for calculating statistical data and percentages, as the answers set is known.

Multiple choice questions, where respondents are restricted to choose among any of the given multiple choice answers are known as closed format or closed-ended questions. There is no fixed limit as to how many multiple choices should be given.