Faktor-Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Variasi Tarif Pajak Efektif Perusahaan: Studi Terhadap Perusahaan yang Terdaftar di BEI Tahun 2002 – 2006
Keywords:Effective tax rates, firm size and asset mix
This paper analyzes the determinants of variability in corporate effective tax rates (ETRs) in a multivariate framework, using 2002 – 2006 Indonesian listed companies’ micro-level data. Specifically, I examined the association between effective tax rates (ETRs), firm size and variable proxying for firm’s capital structures and asset mix while controlling from profitability. This study’s present evidence that ETRs are associated with the asset mix (level of capital intensity and inventory intensity) and return on assets. However, results also show that ETRs are not associated with size and firm’s capital structure. Additionally, I controlled industry membership in sensitivity analysis because these firm specific characteristics might differ systematically by industry. To ensure the robustness of the result, diagnostic check was also performed. Related to the 2008 tax law amandement, this research can contribute to tax authority in order to identify firms that still have the potential to pay more taxes by looking at their capital intensity and inventory intensity.
Brook, C. (2002). Introductory econometrics for finance (1st ed.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Callihan, D. (1994). Corporate effective tax rates: A synthesis of literature. Journal of Accounting Literature 13: 1 – 43.
Dhaliwal, D., Gleason, C., & Mills, L. (2004). Last chance earnings management: using the tax expense to meet analysts’ forecasts. Contemporary Accounting Research 21 (2): 431-457.
Gupta, S., & Newberry, K. (1992). Corporate average effective tax rate after the tax reform Act of 1986. Tax Notes, May 4: 689-702.
Gupta, S., & Newberry, K. (1997). Determinants of the variability in corporate tax rates: Evidence from longitudinal data. Journal of Accounting and Public Policy, 16: 1-34.
Klassen, K. J. (1996). The impact of inside ownership concentration on the trade-off between financial and tax reporting. Working paper, University of Waterloo.
Mills, L., Erickson, M., & Maydew, E. (1998). Investments in tax planning. The Journal of the American Taxation Association 20 (1): 1-20.
Radianto, W. E. D. (2004). Analisis efisiensi perusahaan bank yang terdaftar sebelum dan sesudah diberlakukannya Undang-Undang Perpajakan 2000. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Akuntansi VII, Denpasar, 2-3 Desember 2004.
Republik Indonesia. (1994). Undang-Undang nomor 10 tahun 1994 tentang Perubahan Kedua Atas Undang-Undang Nomor 7 Tahun 1983 Tentang Pajak Penghasilan. Sekretariat Negara, Jakarta.
Republik Indonesia. (2000). Undang-Undang nomor 17 tahun 2000 Undang-Undang tentang Perubahan Ketiga Atas Undang-Undang Nomor 7 Tahun 1983 Tentang Pajak Penghasilan. Sekretariat Negara, Jakarta, 2 Agustus 2000.
Schmidt, A. (2006). Tax persistence, forecasting ability, and valuation implications of the tax change component of earnings. The Accounting Review 81, 589-616.
Siegfried, J. (1972). The relationship between economic structure and the effect of political influence: Empirical evidence from the federal corporation income tax program. PhD Thesis. University of Wisconsin.
Stickney, C. P., & McGee, V. (1982). Effective tax rates: The effect of size, capital intensity, leverage and other factors. Journal of Accounting and Public Policy, 1: 125-152.
Shevlin, & Porter. (1992). The Corporate Tax Rate Comeback in 1987: Some further evidence. The Journal of the American Taxation Association 14 (1): 58 – 79.
Watts, R., & Zimmerman, J. (1986). Towards a Positive Theory of Accounting. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
White, H. (1980). A heteroskedasticity-consistent covariance matrix estimator and a direct test for heteroskedasticity. Econometrica 48(4): 817-838.
Wulandari, D., Kumalahadi., & Prasetyo J. E. (2004) Indikasi Manajemen Laba Menjelang Undang-Undang Perpajakan 2000 pada Perusahaan Manufaktur Yang Terdaftar di Bursa Efek Jakarta, Prosiding Seminar Nasional Akuntansi VII, Denpasar, 2-3 Desember 2004.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
a. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License - Share Alike that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
b. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
c. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.
All articles published Open Access will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download. We are continuously working with our author communities to select the best choice of license options, currently being defined for this journal as follows: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike (CC BY-SA)