Me Too as Transnational Advocacy Networks: The Case of Anti-Sexual Violence Movement in Indonesia

Authors

  • Karina Utami Dewi Universitas Islam Indonesia
  • Hangga Fathana Universitas Islam Indonesia
  • Masitoh Nur Rohma Universitas Islam Indonesia

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.21512/jas.v11i2.8858

Keywords:

Me Too, Indonesia, anti-sexual violence movement

Abstract

The research discusses the anti-sexual movement in Indonesia as a part of the global movement of Me Too and transnational advocacy networks. It aims to answer how the transnational advocacy movement explains the movement against sexual violence in Indonesia. The argument of the research is offered in three parts. First, it argues that the anti-sexual violence movement in Indonesia is a part of transnational advocacy networks. The analysis is provided by explaining the process of boomerang patterns, political entrepreneurs, and international contacts. Second, as part of a transnational advocacy network, the anti-sexual violence movement in Indonesia uses four tactics: information politics, symbolic politics, leverage politics, and accountability politics. The research argues that the anti-sexual violence movement uses all four of the tactics to achieve its goals. Lastly, the third part of the argument discusses the five stages of transnational advocacy networks that the movement has achieved with regard to their goals, and the research argues that it has reached all the stages except for the last one, which is influenced by state behavior.

Dimensions

Plum Analytics

Author Biographies

Karina Utami Dewi, Universitas Islam Indonesia

Department of International Relations, Faculty of Psychology and Socio-Cultural Sciences

Hangga Fathana, Universitas Islam Indonesia

Department of International Relations, Faculty of Psychology and Socio-Cultural Sciences

Masitoh Nur Rohma, Universitas Islam Indonesia

Department of International Relations, Faculty of Psychology and Socio-Cultural Sciences

References

Abdi, A. P. (2021, July 13). Ulama perempuan Indonesia dukung RUU PKS: Semua bentuk KS itu haram. Tirto.id. https://tirto.id/ulama-perempuan-indonesia-dukung-ruu-pks-semua-bentuk-ks-itu-haram-ghGY

Ajie, S. (2019, December 22) Rhythmic beats of ‘kentongan’ live in digital era. The Jakarta Post. https://www.thejakartapost.com/life/2019/12/22/rhythmic-beats-of-kentongan-live-in-digital-era.html

Amindoni, A. (2020, July 2). RUU Kekerasan Seksual ditunda DPR karena 'waktu sempit', padahal tren kekerasan terhadap perempuan meningkat 800 persen. BBC News Indonesia. https://www.bbc.com/indonesia/indonesia-53251392

Amnesty International Indonesia. (2020a, November 12). Empat urgensi pengesahan RUU PKS. https://www.amnesty.id/empat-urgensi-pengesahan-ruu-pks/

Amnesty International Indonesia. (2020b, July 14). Sulitnya menjadi korban kekerasan seksual di Indonesia. https://www.amnesty.id/susahnya-menjadi-korban-kekerasan-seksual-di-indonesia/

Anderson, M., & Toor, S. (2018, October 11). How social media users have discussed sexual harassment since #MeToo went viral. Pew Research Center. https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2018/10/11/how-social-media-users-have-discussed-sexual-harassment-since-metoo-went-viral/

Asmara, J. A. K. (2021, November 23). 10 selebriti dukung Permendikbud 30, anti kekerasan seks di kampus. Zigi.id. https://hits.zigi.id/10-selebriti-dukung-permendikbud-30-anti-kekerasan-seks-di-kampus-4996

AW, T., & Wicaksono, U. (2018). Kisah dari Dapur Balairung: Laporan perkosaan oleh Persma UGM menyulut gerakan #kitaAGNI. Vice. https://www.vice.com/id/article/gy7b59/kisah-dari-dapur-balairung-laporan-perkosaan-persma-ugm-menyulut-gerakan-kitaagni

Balairung Press. (2018, November 5). Nalar pincang UGM atas kasus perkosaan. https://www.balairungpress.com/2018/11/nalar-pincang-ugm-atas-kasus-perkosaan/

BBC. (2017, October 18). Dari Arab sampai Indonesia, kekerasan seksual yang dituangkan lewat #MeToo. https://www.bbc.com/indonesia/trensosial-41662978

BBC. (2022, April 12). RUU TPKS disahkan setelah berbagai penolakan selama enam tahun, apa saja poin pentingnya? https://www.bbc.com/indonesia/indonesia-61077691

Bhwana, P. G. (2022, April 12). House officially passes sexual violence bill into law. Tempo.co. https://en.tempo.co/read/1581215/house-officially-passes-sexual-violence-bill-into-law

Bloodgood, E. A., & Clough, E. (2017). Transnational advocacy networks: A complex adaptive systems simulation model of the Boomerang effect. Social Science Computer Review, 35(3), 319–335. https://doi.org/10.1177/0894439316634077

Boyle, K. (2019). #MeToo, Weinstein and feminism. Springer International Publishing.

Carpenter, R. C. (2007). Setting the advocacy agenda: Theorizing issue emergence and nonemergence in transnational advocacy networks. International Studies Quarterly, 51(1), 99–120. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2478.2007.00441.x

Chandra, G. N. (2021, November 13). Nadiem Makarim: Sexual violence on Indonesian campuses is a critical emergency. Jakarta Globe. https://jakartaglobe.id/news/nadiem-makarim-sexual-violence-on-indonesian-campuses-is-a-critical-emergency

CNN Indonesia. (2021, December 22). Masyarakat sipil demo DPR desak pengesahan RUU TPKS. https://www.cnnindonesia.com/nasional/20211222133034-20-737254/masyarakat-sipil-demo-dpr-desak-pengesahan-ruu-tpks

CNN Indonesia. (2020, July 2). Riwayat RUU PKS di DPR: Sarat kecurigaan, mengulur pembahasan. https://www.cnnindonesia.com/nasional/20200702090607-32-519880/riwayat-ruu-pks-di-dpr-sarat-kecurigaan-mengulur-pembahasan

Collins, J. S. (2020, July 28). Pembahasan RUU PKS: Menilik proses dan permasalahan legislasi. The Conversation. http://theconversation.com/pembahasan-ruu-pks-menilik-proses-dan-permasalahan-legislasi-142561

D'Europe, L. C., & Vigo, S. B. (2018, November 17). #MeToo in Europe, one year later. The New Federalist. https://www.thenewfederalist.eu/metoo-in-europe-one-year-later

Firmansyah, M. J. (2020, November 25). Pagi ini, 500 pasang sepatu demo RUU PKS di depan gedung DPR Senayan. Tempo.co. https://metro.tempo.co/read/1408696/pagi-ini-500-pasang-sepatu-demo-ruu-pks-di-depan-gedung-dpr-senayan

Floretta, J. (2022, March 8). Komnas perempuan: Kasus kekerasan perempuan naik tahun ini. https://magdalene.co/story/komnas-perempuan-terjadi-kenaikan-kasus-kekerasan-terhadap-perempuan

Ford, L. (2014). Sexual violence survivors launch global advocacy and support network. Magdalene. https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2014/‌jun/‌‌‌13‌‌/‌sexual-violence-survivors-launch-global-network

Gerlach, R. (2020, November 25). The fight to outlaw sexual violence in Indonesia. Inside Indonesia. https://www.insideindonesia.org/the-fight-to-outlaw-sexual-violence-in-indonesia

Grady, C. (2020, February 24). Some say the Me Too movement has gone too far. The Harvey Weinstein verdict proves that’s false. Vox. https://www.vox.com/culture/2020/2/24/21150966/harvey-weinstein-rape-conviction-sexual-predatory-assault-me-too-too-far

Haynes, S., & Chen, A. (2018, October 9). How #MeToo is taking on a life of its own in Asia. Time. https://time.com/longform/me-too-asia-china-south-korea/

Kaarbo, J., & Beasley, R. K. (1999). A practical guide to the comparative case study method in political psychology. Political Psychology, 20(2), 369–391. https://doi.org/10.1111/0162-895X.00149

Kartika, D. A. (2019, March 8). #MeToo has skipped Indonesia — Here’s why. The Conversation. https://theconversation.com/metoo-has-skipped-indonesia-heres-why-112530

Keck, M. E., & Sikkink, K. (1999). Transnational advocacy networks in international and regional politics. International Social Science Journal, 51(159), 89–101. https://doi.org/10.1111/issj.12187

Kementerian Pemberdayaan Perempuan dan Perlindungan Anak Republik Indonesia. (2017, September 2017). RUU PKS mulai dibahas antara pemerintah dan DPR. https://www.kemenpppa.go.id/index.php/page/read/29/1498/ruu-pks-mulai-dibahas-antara-pemerintah-dan-dpr

Kementerian Pemberdayaan Perempuan dan Perlindungan Anak Republik Indonesia. (n.d.). SIMFONI-PPA. https://kekerasan.kemenpppa.go.id/ringkasan

Komnas Perempuan. (2022a). Ketua DPR RI undang Komnas Perempuan dan jaringan masyarakat sipil: Apresiasi perjuangan bersama pengesahan UU TPKS. https://komnasperempuan.go.id/kabar-perempuan-detail/ketua-dpr-ri-undang-komnas-perempuan-dan-jaringan-masyarakat-sipil-apresiasi-perjuangan-bersama-pengesahan-uu-tpks

Komnas Perempuan. (2022b). Peluncuran CATAHU Komnas Perempuan. https://komnasperempuan.go.id/kabar-perempuan-detail/peluncuran-catahu-komnas-perempuan-2022

Komnas Perempuan. (n.d). Naskah akademik rancangan undang-undang tentang penghapusan kekerasan seksual. https://komnasperempuan.go.id/pemetaan-kajian-prosiding-detail/naskah-akademik-rancangan-undang-undang-tentang-penghapusan-kekerasan-seksual

Kusuma, W. (2018, November 8). Mahasiswa tuntut UGM selesaikan kasus kekerasan seksual secara adil dan transparan. Kompas.com. https://regional.kompas.com/read/2018/11/08/15043211/mahasiswa-tuntut-ugm-selesaikan-kasus-kekerasan-seksual-secara-adil-dan?page=all

Lerche, J. (2008). Transnational advocacy networks and affirmative action for Dalits in India. Development and Change, 39(2), 239–261. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7660.2007.00478.x

Leskin, P. (2017, October 17). 20 of the half million (and counting) #MeToo stories of sexual assault. Inverse. https://www.inverse.com/article/37439-me-too-stories-social-media-sexual-assault

Longdong, N. (2022, April 13) Sexual violences laws becomes new progressive breakthrough. Viva.co. https://www.viva.co.id/berita/dunia/1466367-sexual-violences-laws-becomes-new-progressive-breakthrough?page=all&utm_medium=all-page

Mochtar, Y. H. (2019) Islamic feminist dan hubungan internasional: Peran ‘perempuan ulama’ dalam mengadvokasi hak perempuan di Indonesia. Universitas Indonesia Library. https://lib.ui.ac.id/detail?id=20491521&lokasi=lokal

Muthiariny, D. A. (2022). House officially passes sexual violence bill into law. Tempo.co. https://en.tempo.co/read/1581215/house-officially-passes-sexual-violence-bill-into-law

North, A. (2019, October 4). 7 positive changes that have come from the #MeToo movement. Vox. https://www.vox.com/identities/2019/10/4/20852639/me-too-movement-sexual-harassment-law-2019

Nugraha, R. (2019, January 29) Perempuan Muslim konservatif galang petisi tolak RUU PKS. DW. https://www.dw.com/id/perempuan-muslim-konservatif-galang-petisi-tolak-ruu-anti-kekerasan-seksual/a-47274675

Olheiser, A. (2017, October 19). The woman behind “Me Too” knew the power of the phrase when she created it — 10 years ago. The Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-intersect/wp/2017/10/19/the-woman-behind-me-too-knew-the-power-of-the-phrase-when-she-created-it-10-years-ago/

Plan International. (2022, January 19). RUU TPKS harus mampu melindungi anak korban kekerasan seksual. https://plan-international.or.id/en/siaran-pers/ruu-tpks-harus-mampu-melindungi-anak-korban-kekerasan-seksual/

Pratiwi, A. M. (2021). Mengupayakan keadilan bagi korban kekerasan seksual melalui aktivisme tagar: Kesempatan dan kerentanan di Indonesia. Jurnal Perempuan, 26(3), 207–217. https://doi.org/10.34309/jp.v26i3.617

Putsanra, D. V., Zuhra, W. U. N., & Adam, A. (2019, February 9). Kasus Agni: Bagaimana UGM mengabaikan kasus kekerasan seksual. Tirto.id. https://tirto.id/kasus-agni-bagaimana-ugm-mengabaikan-kasus-kekerasan-seksual-dgpM

Ramadhan, A. (2022, January 20). Laporan kasus kekerasan terhadap anak dan perempuan meningkat 3 tahun terakhir. Kompas.com. https://nasional.kompas.com/read/2022/01/20/12435801/laporan-kasus-kekerasan-terhadap-anak-dan-perempuan-meningkat-3-tahun

Rodino-Colocino, M. (2018). Me too, #MeToo: countering cruelty with empathy. Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies, 15(1), 96–100. https://doi.org/10.1080/14791420.2018.1435083

Sani, A. F. I. (2019, September 29). Komnas Perempuan: RUU PKS mangkrak, Tak pedui kekerasan seksual. Tempo.co. https://nasional.tempo.co/read/1253698/komnas-perempuan-ruu-pks-mangkrak-tak-pedui-kekerasan-seksual

SEMA Network (n.d.) About SEMA. https://www.semanetwork.org/about-sema/

Sen, P. (2020). #MeToo: Headlines from a global movement. UN Women. https://www.unwomen.org/en/digital-library/publications/2020/08/brief-metoo-headlines-from-a-global-movement

Sinombor, S. H. (2022. April 13) UU TPKS disahkan, tonggak awal penghapusan kekerasan seksual. Kompas.id. https://www.kompas.id/baca/dikbud/2022/04/12/uu-tpks-disahkan-perjuangan-untuk-korban-masih-panjang

Stone, M., & Vogelstein, R. (2019, March 7). Celebrating #MeToo’s global impact. Foreign Policy Magazine. https://foreignpolicy.com/2019/03/07/metooglobalimpactinternationalwomens-day/

Subarkah, A. A. J., & Tobroni, F. (2020). Urgensi pengesahan RUU PKS terhadap instrumen penegakan hak asasi perempuan. Supremasi Hukum: Jurnal Kajian Ilmu Hukum, 9(2), 90–115. https://doi.org/10.14421/sh.v9i2.2207

Sucahyo, N. (2021, December 15) Kongres ulama perempuan: Indonesia darurat kekerasan seksual. VOA Indonesia. https://www.voaindonesia.com/a/kongres-ulama-perempuan-indonesia-darurat-kekerasan-seksual/6355508.html

Suhenda, D. (2021, November 12). Ministerial decree against sexual violence faces pushback from Islamic groups. The Jakarta Post. https://www.thejakartapost.com/indonesia/2021/11/11/ministerial-decree-against-sexual-violence-faces-pushback-from-islamic-groups.html

Suk, J., Abhishek, A., Zhang, Y., Ahn, S. Y., Correa, T., Garlough, C., & Shah, D. V. (2021). #MeToo, networked acknowledgment, and connective action: How “empowerment through empathy” launched a social movement. Social Science Computer Review, 39(2), 276-294. https://doi.org/10.1177/0894439319864882

Swaragita, G. (2021, October 31). 'Big step’: Students, lecturers laud decree to fight sexual violence on campuses. The Jakarta Post. https://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2021/10/31/big-step-students-lecturers-laud-decree-to-fight-sexual-violence-on-campuses.html

Syambudi, I. (2020, February 2) Jalan panjang UGM sahkan aturan penanganan kekerasan seksual. Tirto.id. https://tirto.id/jalan-panjang-ugm-sahkan-aturan-penanganan-kekerasan-seksual-ev5J

Syukur, Y. (2018). The rise of female ulama in Indonesia: A gender perspective. Risea: Review of Islam in Southeast Asia, 1(1), 15–24.

Tenola, D. (2018, November 8). UGM darurat pelecehan seksual, mahasiswa gelar aksi 'Kita Agni'. Jawa Pos. https://www.jawapos.com/jpg-today/08/11/2018/ugm-darurat-pelecehan-seksual-mahasiswa-gelar-aksi-kita-agni/

Virra, K., Andreswari, R., & Hasibuan, M. A. (2019). Sentiment analysis of social media users Using Naïve Bayes, Decision Tree, Random Forest algorithm: A case study of draft law on the elimination of sexual violence (RUU PKS)’, in 2019 International Conference on Sustainable Engineering and Creative Computing (ICSECC) (pp. 239–244). IEEE. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICSECC.2019.8907228

Widianto, S. (2016, May 16). Komnas perempuan serahkan naskah akademik RUU penghapusan kekerasan seksual. PikiranRakyat.com. https://www.pikiran-rakyat.com/nasional/pr-01255811/komnas-perempuan-serahkan-naskah-akademik-ruu-penghapusan-kekerasan-seksual

Winarnita, M., Bahfen, N., Height, G., Byrne, J., & Mintarsih, A. R. (2020, January 26). #MeToo Indonesia. Inside Indonesia. https://www.insideindonesia.org/metoo-indonesia

Zuhra, W. U. N., & Adam, A. (2019, April 25). Testimoni kekerasan seksual: 174 penyintas, 79 kampus, 29 kota. Tirto.id. https://tirto.id/testimoni-kekerasan-seksual-174-penyintas-79-kampus-29-kota-dmTW

Downloads

Published

2023-11-29
Abstract 339  .
PDF downloaded 126  .