Far from Home: Profile of pro-IS Deportees’ Mobility throughout 2016-2020 and Prevention Strategy of Indonesian Government


  • Andi Raihanah Ashar Binus University
  • Curie Maharani Binus University




terrorist mobility, terrorist mobility strategy, the Islamic State (IS), departure, immigration


Transnational terrorism has been a worldwide challenge, especially after the declaration of Islamic State (IS) that was based in Syria and Iraq in 2014. By 2017, most foreign terrorist fighters (FTFs) from Southeast Asia were Indonesian nationals, of almost 700 individuals. The actual number might be higher as some departed to Syria and other destination countries, like Afghanistan, the Philippines, and India, undetected. The research aimed to examine how Pro-IS terrorists exploit loopholes in border and immigration control to join IS abroad and the shortcoming in Indonesian government strategy to counter their mobility. The novelty of the research rested on its use of Supreme Court’s record of 38 Pro-IS deportees to build a dataset of their profile and travel history from 2016 to 2020. Profile of individual deportee was categorized into demography, affiliation, and funding. Travel history was mapped in accordance with the point of departure in Indonesia, transit country, final destination, and location where the arrest took place- which then led to deportation. The research finds that Indonesia needs improvement in human resources, law enforcement, immigration management, border control, as well as cross-border cooperation.


Plum Analytics

Author Biography

Andi Raihanah Ashar, Binus University

Undergraduate student at Department of International Relations, Binus University. Also works as junior researcher at Semar Sentinel, a part of holding company that specialise on security consultation.


Abuza, Z. & Satria, A. (2020, June 23). How are Indonesia’s terrorist groups weathering the pandemic? The Diplomat. https://thediplomat.com/2020/06/how-are-indonesias-terrorist-groups-weathering-the-pandemic/

Anindya, B. C. R. (2019). Indonesia’s counterterrorism policy: An appraisal. S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies (RSIS) Commentary, 188. https://www.rsis.edu.sg/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/CO19188.pdf

Anindya, B. C. R. (2019). The deradicalisation programme for Indonesian deportees: A vacuum in coordination. Journal for Deradicalization, 18, 217–243.

Anti pencucian uang dan pencegahan pendanaan terorisme. (n.d.). Bank Indonesia. https://www.bi.go.id/id/fungsi-utama/sistem-pembayaran/anti-pencucian-uang-dan-pencegahan-pendanaan-terrorisme/default.aspx

Arianti, V. & Azman, N. A. (2019). The IS Threat in Indonesia. Counter Terrorist Trends and Analyses, 11(7), 1–5.

Arianti, V. & Rahmah, U. (2021, September 15). What the Taliban takeover in Afghanistan means for IS supporters in Indonesia. The Diplomat. https://thediplomat.com/2021/09/what-the-taliban-takeover-in-afghanistan-means-for-is-supporters-in-indonesia/

Association of Southeast Asian Nations. (2021). ASEAN Security Outlook 2021. Association of Southeast Asian Nations. https://asean.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/10/ASEAN-Security-Outlook-ASO-2021.pdf

Basit, A. (2020). COVID-19: A challenge or opportunity for terrorist groups? Journal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism, 15(3), 263–275. https://‌doi.org/‌10.1080/‌‌‌‌‌18335330.‌2020.1828603

BNPT. (2021a). Bahas dan Finalisasi Laporan Pelaksanaan RAN PE, BNPT Kembali Gelar Rapat Koordinasi Kedua Sekber RAN PE Tahun 2020-2024. Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Terorisme. https://www.bnpt.go.id/bahas-dan-finalisasi-laporan-pelaksanaan-ran-pe-bnpt-kembali-gelar-rapat-koordinasi-kedua-sekber-ran-pe-tahun-2020-2024

BNPT. (2021b). Gelar Rakor II RAN PE Tahun 2021-2024, Sekber Siapkan Laporan Implementasi Untuk Presiden. Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Terorisme. https://www.bnpt.go.id/gelar-rakor-ii-ran-pe-tahun-2021-2024-sekber-siapkan-laporan-implementasi-untuk-presiden

BNPT. (2021c). Optimalkan Perpres RAN PE, BNPT Gelar Rapat Koordinasi Pembentukan Sekretariat Bersama RAN PE 2020-2024. Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Terorisme. https://www.bnpt.go.id/optimalkan-perpres-ran-pe-bnpt-gelar-rapat-koordinasi-pembentukan-sekretariat-bersama-ran-pe-2020-2024

Briantika, A. (2019, July 24). Bongkar jaringan JAD & ISIS, Densus 88 akan bertemu Liaison Officer. Tirto.id. https://tirto.id/bongkar-jaringan-jad-isis-densus-88-akan-bertemu-liaison-officer-eeYk

Center for Strategic and International Studies. (2018). Islamic State Khorasan (IS-K). Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1–9. https://www.csis.org/programs/‌‌‌‌‌transnational-threats-project/terrorism-backgrounders/islamic-state-khorasan-k

Citrawan, H. & Nadilla, S. (2019). Model kontrol keimigrasian dalam mencegah tindak pidana terorisme di Indonesia. Lentera Hukum, 6(1), 71–96. https://doi.org/10.19184/

Counter-Terrorism Committee Executive Directorate (CTED) UN Security Council. (2021). Update on the Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Terrorism, Counter-terrorism and Countering Violent Extremism (June). https://www.un.org/‌‌‌securitycouncil/‌‌ctc/sites/www.un.org.securitycouncil.ctc/files/files/documents/2021/Jun/cted_covid_paper_15june2021_1.pdf

Divisi Hubungan Internasional POLRI. (2017). Kunjungan Kehormatan Delegasi Polri Kepada Kepala Kepolisian Nasional Turki. Divisi Hubungan Internasional POLRI. https://divhubinter.polri.go.id/dbi/viewBerita.php?id=38

Divisi Hubungan Internasional POLRI. (2018a). INTERPOL Border Operation 2018. Divisi Hubungan Internasional POLRI.

Divisi Hubungan Internasional POLRI. (2018b). Penandatanganan SOP Polri-Ditjen Imigrasi tentang Penanganan Hits atau Alert pada sistem INTERPOL I-24/7 yang berintegrasi dengan sistem Border Control Management Imigrasi. Divisi Hubungan Internasional POLRI.

Ginsburg, S. (2006, February). Countering terrorist mobility: Shaping an operational strategy. Migration Policy Institute. https://www.migrationpolicy.org/research/countering-terrorist-mobility-shaping-operational-strategy

Glenn, C. (2019, October 28). Timeline: The rise, spread, and fall of the Islamic State. Wilson Center. https://www.wilsoncenter.org/article/timeline-the-rise-spread-and-fall-the-islamic-state

Indonesian couple with ties to JAD behind Jolo church attack: Police. (2019, July 24). The Jakarta Post. https://www.thejakartapost.com/seasia/2019/07/24/indonesian-couple-with-ties-to-jad-behind-jolo-church-attack-police.html

Institute for Policy Analysis of Conflict. (2019). The Jolo bombing and the legacy of ISIS in the Philippines IPAC Report No. 54. https://www.jstor.org/stable/resrep24206.3?seq=1#metadata_info_tab_contents

Institute for Policy Analysis of Conflict. (2018). Managing Indonesia’s pro-ISIS deportees. IPAC Report No. 47. http://file.understandingconflict.org/file/2018/07/IPAC_Report_47.pdf

Institute for Policy Analysis of Conflict. (2019). Press Statement of Police Director General Oscar D Albayalde (Issue 54). https://www.jstor.org/stable/resrep24206.10

International Organization for Migration. (2010). International Terrorism and Migration. International Organization for Migration (IOM). https://www.iom.int/sites/g/files/tmzbdl486/files/jahia/webdav/shared/shared/mainsite/activities/tcm/international_terrorism_and_migration.pdf

Kibtiah, T. M. (2016). Mobilizations and movements of foreign fighters from Southeast Asia to Syria and Iraq. Journal of ASEAN Studies, 4(1), 79-86. https://doi.org/10.21512/‌‌‌jas.v4i1.1533

Laelani, R. (2018, November 8). Kapolda Bali: Jamin stabilitas regional melalui kerjasama dalam penanggulangan terorisme. Tribun Bali. https://bali.tribunnews.com/2018/11/08/kapolda-bali-jamin-stabilitas-regional-melalui-kerjasama-dalam-penanggulangan-terorisme

Latief, M. N. (2019, August 22). Pengebom di Jolo gunakan Sabah sebagai Berita terkait. Anadolu Agency. https://www.aa.com.tr/id/regional/pengebom-di-jolo-gunakan-sabah-sebagai-kawasan-transit/1562050

Longo, H. (2017). Sharing information in order to fight against terrorism. Hong Kong ICAO TRIP Regional Seminar. https://www.icao.int/Meetings/TRIP-HongKong-2017/‌‌‌‌‌‌‍‌‌Documents/1.HERNAN LONGO.pdf

Nuraniyah, N. (2015, January 9). How ISIS charmed the new generation of Indonesian militants. Middle East Institute. https://www.mei.edu/publications/how-isis-charmed-new-generation-indonesian-militants

Pemerintah tidak berencana pulangkan teroris lintas batas. (2020, February 11). Kementerian Komunikasi dan Informatika Republik Indonesia. https://www.kominfo.go.id/content/detail/24334/pemerintah-tidak-berencana-pulangkan-teroris-lintas-batas/0/berita

Putra, B. H. & Arifin, R. (2020). The adoption of border technology of immigration control and autogates in Indonesia. SINTECH (Science and Information Technology) Journal, 3(2), 137–148. https://doi.org/10.31598/sintechjournal.v3i2.645

Rahmanto, T. Y., Firdaus, Utami, P. N., Citrawan, H., Rachmawati, Y., & Fathony, A. (2020). Teknik Pengawasan Keimigrasian dan Manajemen Kolaboratif Dalam Pencegahan Terorisme. South Jakarta: Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hukum dan HAM (BALITBANGKUMHAM) Press.

Ryacudu, R. (2018). Terrorism in Southeast Asia: The need for joint counter-terrorism frameworks. Counter Terrorist Trends and Analyses, 10(11), 1-3.

Sarkar, S. (2019, August 22). Afghanistan’s terror threat is much bigger than the Taliban. The Diplomat. https://thediplomat.com/2019/08/afghanistans-terror-threat-is-much-bigger-than-the-taliban/

Solahudin, Fealy, G., & McRae, D. (2017). The Roots of Terrorism in Indonesia: From Darul Islam to Jem’ah Islamiyah. Cornell University Press. https://doi.org/10.7591/9780801470202

Susilo, J. (2019, November 6). Imigrasi Indonesia-Malaysia bahas penanganan permasalahan keimigrasian. ANTARA News. https://‌www.antaranews.com/‌berita/1149796/imigrasi-indonesia-malaysia-bahas-penanganan-permasalahan-keimigrasian

Taufiqurrohman, M. (2015). The road to ISIS: How Indonesian jihadists travel to Iraq and Syria. Counter Terrorist Trends and Analyses, 7(4), 17–25.

Timur, F. G. C. & Yani, Y. M. (2019). Facing ISIS returning foreign terrorist fighters: Indonesia perspective. Jurnal Pertahanan, 5(2), 38–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.33172/jp.v5i2.553

Tingkatkan kerjasama keimigrasian, 10 negara ASEAN dan Australia gelar pertemuan di Lombok. (2018, July 03). Kantor Wilayah Nusa Tenggara Barat-Kementrian Hukum dan HAM Republik Indonesia. https://ntb.kemenkumham.go.id/berita-kanwil/berita-utama/2851-tingaktkan-kerjasama-keimigrasian-10-negara-asean-dan-australia-gelar-pertemuan-di-lombok

Tristiawati, P. (2016, March 14). Diduga akan gabung ISIS di Suriah, 10 orang ditangkap di Soetta. Liputan6. https://www.liputan6.com/news/read/2457835/diduga-akan-gabung-isis-di-suriah-10-orang-ditangkap-di-soetta

Usulan Indonesia disetujui dalam sidang DGICM ke-20 di Bali. (2016, September 23). Tribun Bali. https://bali.tribunnews.com/2016/09/23/usulan-indonesia-disetujui-dalam-sidang-dgicm-ke-20-di-bali

VisaIndex. (2022). Indonesia Passport Visa Free Countries List 2022. Guide Consultants. https://visaindex.com/visa-requirement/indonesia-passport-visa-free-countries-list/

Wibisono, A. A. & Kusumasomantri, A. R. (2020). Assessing the expectations and limitations of ASEAN-EU counter-terrorism cooperation. Journal of ASEAN Studies, 8(1), 61-80, https://doi.org/10.21512/jas.v8i1.6171

Yayla, A. S. (2019). Turkish ISIS and AQ foreign fighters: Reconciling the numbers and perception of the terrorism threat. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 44(12), 1125-1147. https://doi.org/10.1080/1057610X.2019.1628613

th bilateral meeting on immigration cooperation. (2016). Kantor Wilayah Jawa Timur-Kementerian Hukum dan HAM Republik Indonesia. https://jatim.kemenkumham.go.id/pusat-informasi/artikel/2230-10th-bilateral-meeting-on-immigration-cooperation



Abstract 421  .
PDF downloaded 167  .