Xi Jinping, “China Dream”, and Chinese Military Diplomacy to ASEAN
Keywords:Xi Jinping, military, military, foreign policy-making, national security, military diplomacy, South China Sea, ASEAN
The rise of Xi Jinping has brought together the idea of the ‘China Dream’ as a great revival of China. Since the dream referred to the nationalism spirit of a ‘century of humiliation,’ it has made national security issues as the core of China’s diplomacy. While the national security-related foreign policy has enhanced the military's role in China’s foreign policy-making, it brings consequences for China’s tougher stance in protecting China’s national security. However, Xi Jinping’s notion of using military diplomacy has started uneasy relationships between China and some ASEAN countries resulting in ‘ongoing negotiation without progress’ for the South China Sea dispute. The research examines the impacts of the military’s growing role in China’s foreign policy under Xi Jinping to its military diplomacy in ASEAN. The results show that Xi Jinping’s leadership and vision of the China Dream, which uses military diplomacy as a key tool for advancing its whole diplomatic goals, has been seen as a sign of growing assertiveness.
Allen, K., Saunders, P. C., and Chen, J. (2017). Chinese Military Diplomacy 2003-2016: Trends and Implications. Washington DC: National Defense University Press.
ASEAN. ASEAN Defence Ministers Meeting (ADMM). https://asean.org/asean-political-security-community/asean-defence-ministers-meeting-admm/
Cai, P. (2016). ASEAN’s defence diplomacy and China’s military diplomacy. Asia Policy, 22, 89-95. http://dx.doi.org/10.33172/jp.v5i1.487
Cameron, F. (2013, 15 November). China’s foreign policy under the new leadership – More continuity than change. Eu-Asia Centre. http://www.eu-asiacentre.eu/pub_details.php?pub_id=124
Chang, F. K. (2015, 27 May). Strategic intentions: China’s military strategy white paper. Foreign Policy Research Institute. http://www.fpri.org/2015/05/strategic-intentions-chinas-military-strategy-white-paper/
China to build landing ship for Thai navy. (2019, 17 September). The Strait Times. https://www.straitstimes.com/asia/se-asia/china-to-build-landing-ship-for-thai-navy
Gady, F. S. (2015, 26 May). China to embrace new 'Active Defense' strategy. The Diplomat. http://thediplomat.com/2015/05/china-to-embrace-new-active-defense-strategy/
Gore, L. L. P. (2013). China’s New Foreign Policy Team. East Asian Policy: An International Quarterly, 5(3), 5 – 17.
Grieger, G. (2015, June). The role of army in China’s politics. European Parliamentary Research Service. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/BRIE/2015/564375/EPRS_BRI(2015)564375_EN.pdf
Heydarian, R. J. (2020). The Indo-Pacific: Trump, China, and the New Struggle for Global Mastery. Singapore: Palgrave Macmilan: Singapore.
Huang, C. (2013). Change Agent or Steady as She Goes? in South China Morning Post. (2013). The China Renaissance The Rise of Xi Jinping and the 18th Communist Party Congress. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing.
Huang, C. (2014, 20 January). How leading small groups help Xi Jinping and other party leaders exert power. South China Morning Post. http://www.scmp.com/news/china/article/1409118/how-leading-small-groups-help-xi-jinping-and-other-party-leaders-exert.
Jakobson, L. and Manuel, R. (2016). How are foreign policy decisions made in China? Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies, 3(1), 101-110. https://doi.org/10.1002/app5.121
Ji, Y. (2014a). The military role in China’s foreign policy-making. East Asian Policy, 16, 13-25.
Ji, Y. (2014b). The PLA and diplomacy: Unravelling myths about the military role in foreign policy making. Journal of Contemporary China, 23(86), 236-254. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10670564.2013.832526
Kania, E. (2015, 12 June). China: Active defense in the cyber domain. The Diplomat. https://thediplomat.com/2015/06/china-active-defense-in-the-cyber-domain/
Kuhn, R. L. (2013, 4 June). Xi Jinping’s Chinese dream. New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/05/opinion/global/xi-jinpings-chinese-dream.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
Latiff, R. and Ananthalakshmi, A. (2020, 23 April). Malaysia calls for peaceful end to months-long South China Sea standoff. The Jakarta Post. https://www.thejakartapost.com/seasia/2020/04/23/malaysia-calls-for-peaceful-end-to-months-long-south-china-sea-standoff.html
Lee, V. R. (2015, 14 April). South China Sea: China is building on the Paracels as well. The Diplomat. http://thediplomat.com/2015/04/south-china-sea-china-is-building-on-the-paracels-as-well/
Miller, J. (2013). SITC bulletin analysis: China's Dream army. UC San Diego: Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation. http://escholarship.org/uc/item/67x812nh
Panda, A. (2014, 27 November). One Year of ADIZ: What Next for China? The Diplomat. http://thediplomat.com/2014/11/one-year-of-adiz-what-next-for-china/
Poulin, A. (2016, 15 April). Going Blue: The Transformation of China’s Navy. The Diplomat. http://thediplomat.com/2016/04/going-blue-the-transformation-of-chinas-navy/
Ramzy, A. (2016, 21 April). China’s President, Xi Jinping, Gains a New Title: Commander in Chief. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/22/world/asia/china-xi-jinping-military-commander.html
Remarks on the occasion of meeting with the Chinese and Foreign Press by members of the standing committee of the political bureau of the eighteenth central committee of the Communist Party of China. (2012, 15 November). http://www.china.org.cn/china/18th_cpc_congress/2012-11/16/content_27130032.htm
Shi, T. and Tweed, D. (2014, 2 December). Xi Jinping outlines ‘Big country diplomacy for China’. Sydney Morning Herald. http://www.smh.com.au/world/xi-jinping-outlines-big-country-diplomacy-for-china-20141202-11yaj5.html
Song, Z. (2008). The Structural Influence of the Military in China’s Foreign Policy Making. Asian Studies Review, 24(1), 71-98. https://doi.org/10.1080/10357820008713260
Storey, I. (2019, 27 May). Thailand’s military relations with China: Moving from strength to strength. ISEAS Perspective, 43. https://www.iseas.edu.sg/images/pdf/ISEAS_Perspective_2019_43.pdf
The central conference on work relating to foreign affairs was held in Beijing. (2014, 29 November). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China. http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/zxxx_662805/t1215680.shtml
The power of Xi Jinping. (2014, 18 September). The Economist. http://www.economist.com/news/china/21618882-cult-personality-growing-around-chinas-president-what-will-he-do-his-political
Tiezzi, S. (2014, 10 September). Why is China building islands in the South China Sea? The Diplomat. http://thediplomat.com/2014/09/why-is-china-building-islands-in-the-south-china-sea/
United Nations. (n.d). United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. http://www.un.org/depts/los/convention_agreements/texts/unclos/unclos_e.pdf
Wingfield-Hayes, R. (2014, 9 September). China’s island factory. BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/special/2014/newsspec_8701/index.html
Xi Jinping - China Dream. (n.d). Global Security. http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/china/china-dream.htm
Xi Jinping and the Chinese Dream. (2013, 4 May). The Economist. http://www.economist.com/news/leaders/21577070-vision-chinas-new-president-should-serve-his-people-not-nationalist-state-xi-jinping
Xinhua. (2013, 17 March). President vows to press ahead with "Chinese dream". Xinhua. http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/china/2013-03/17/c_132239786.htm
Xinhua. (2015, 26 May). Full text: China's military strategy. China Daily. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2015-05/26/content_20820628_4.htm
Yasuhiro, M. (2006, March). An essay on China’s military diplomacy: Examination of intentions in foreign strategy. NIDS Security Studies, 8(3), 21-37. http://www.nids.mod.go.jp/english/publication/kiyo/pdf/bulletin_e2006_2_Matsuda.pdf
Yinan, Z. (2013, 18 March). China’s Dream is Xi’s vision. China Daily. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2013npc/2013-03/18/content_16315025.htm
Zhang, J. (2015). China's new foreign policy under Xi Jinping: towards ‘Peaceful Rise 2.0’? Global Change, Peace & Security, 27(1), 5-19. https://doi.org/10.1080/14781158.2015.993958
Zheng, S. and Liu, X. (2015, May). The Pursuit of Peaceful Development: How China's Foreign Policy and Its National Security are Connected. Dissertation. Halmstad University.
Zicheng, Y., Levine, S. I. and Liu, G. (2011). Inside China’s Grand Strategy. Kentucky: The University Press of Kentucky.
Copyright (c) 2020 Lidya Christin Sinaga
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.