Indonesian Students’ Prejudice Against Homosexuals: Religious Fundamentalism and Intergroup Threat as Predictors
Keywords:gays and lesbians, Indonesian students, intergroup threat, prejudice, religious fundamentalism
The research aimed to examine and explain the relationship between religious fundamentalism and intergroup threats toward undergraduate students’ prejudice against gays and lesbians. Bhinneka Tunggal Ika, a slogan about tolerance, is supposed to protect and enhance diversity in Indonesia. On the contrary, sexual minority groups, gays and lesbians, often accept stereotypes, prejudices, and discrimination from the majority of Indonesian because they are considered against the religious values and morality of Indonesian. The research used a cross-sectional survey design with accidental sampling methods. The research subjects were students aged 18 to 24 years who studied at universities in Surabaya, identified as heterosexuals, and with diverse religious backgrounds (N = 414). The instruments used were the Attitudes Towards Lesbians and Gay Men (ATLG), the Revised Religious Fundamentalism Scale (RFS-12), and the Perceived Threat of Homosexuals (PTHS) Scale. Multiple regression analysis shows that religious fundamentalism and intergroup threat plays a significant role in explaining prejudice against gays and lesbians (R = 0,872; R² = 0,761; F = 654,817; p < 0,001). The role of intergroup threat as a predictor of prejudice against gays and lesbians is higher than religious fundamentalism.
Additional analysis shows that academic discipline, contact, empathy, religion, and university characteristics affect students’ prejudice.
Aberson, C. L., Ferguson, H., & Allen, J. (2021). Contact, threat, and prejudice: A test of intergroup threat theory across three samples and multiple measures of prejudice. Journal of Theoretical Social Psychology, 5(4), 404-422. https://doi.org/10.1002/jts5.107.
Abrams, D., Vyver, J. Van de, Houston, D. M., & Vasiljevic, M. (2017). Does terror defeat contact? Intergroup contact and prejudice toward muslims before and after the london bombings. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, 23(3), 260-268. https://doi.org/10.1037/pac0000167.
Adira, N., & Halida, R. (2021). Perceived threats looming on SDG of peace and justice: Effects of investor’s identity, symbolic and economic threats on attitudes towards FDI. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 716, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/716/1/012105.
Alghamdi, Y. (2017). Multicultural education in the US: Current issues and suggestions for practical implementations. International Journal of Education, 9(2), 44-52. https://doi.org/10.5296/ije.v9i2.11316.
Altemeyer, B., & Hunsberger, B. (1992). Authoritarianism, religious fundamentalism, quest, and prejudice. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 2(2), 113-133. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327582ijpr0202_5.
Altemeyer, B., & Hunsberger, B. (2004). Research: A revised religious fundamentalism scale: The short and sweet of it. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 14(1), 47-54. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327582ijpr1401_4.
Álvarez-Castillo, J. L., Fernández-Caminero, G., & González-González, H. (2018). Is empathy one of the big three? Identifying its role in a dual-process model of ideology and blatant and subtle prejudice. PLoS ONE, 13(4), 1-21. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0195470.
Arli, D., Badejo, A., & Sutanto, N. (2019). Exploring the effect of intrinsic religiousness, extrinsic religiousness, and religious fundamentalism on people’s attitude towards lesbians and gays in Indonesia. Journal of Religion, Spirituality and Aging, 32(2), 118-134. https://doi.org/10.1080/15528030.2019.1640830.
Awaluddin, L. (2018). Ormas Islam di Karawang gelar aksi tolak LGBT. Retrieved from https://news.detik.com/berita-jawa-barat/d-4264458/ormas-islam-di-karawang-gelar-aksi-tolak-lgbt.
Berutu, S. A. (2020). Demo tolak LGBT di kantor walkot, Massa: Jangan sampai Depok turun azab!. Retrieved from https://news.detik.com/berita/d-4880629/demo-tolak-lgbt-di-kantor-walkot-massa-jangan-sampai-depok-turun-azab.
Cislaghi, B., & Heise, L. (2019). Gender norms and social norms: differences, similarities and why they matter in prevention science. Sociology of Health and Illness, 42(2), 407-422. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.13008.
Ekerim-Akbulut, M., Selçuk, B., Slaughter, V., Hunter, J. A., & Ruffman, T. (2020). In two minds: Similarity, threat, and prejudice contribute to worse mindreading of outgroups compared with an ingroup. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 51(1), 25-48. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022119883699.
Fausto-sterling, A. (2019). Gender/sex, sexual orientation, and identity are in the body: How did they get there? The Journal of Sex Research, 56(4-5), 529-555. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224499.2019.1581883.
Fihris, F. (2020). The effect of academic background and religious orientation to religious fundamentalism among university students. Nadwa: Jurnal Pendidikan Islam, 14(1), 129-154. https://doi.org/10.21580/nw.2020.14.1.6118.
Foster, S. D., Elischberger, H. B., & Hill, E. D. (2018). Examining the link between socioeconomic status and mental illness prejudice: The roles of knowledge about mental illness and empathy. Stigma and Health, 3(2), 139-151. https://doi.org/10.1037/sah0000084.
Garnesia, I. (2019). Pandangan terhadap LGBT: Masih soal penyakit sosial dan agama. Retrieved from https://tirto.id/pandangan-terhadap-lgbt-masih-soal-penyakit-sosial-dan-agama-edju.
Greenburg, J. E., & Gaia, A. C. (2019). Interpersonal contact, stereotype acceptance, gender role beliefs, causal attribution, and religiosity as predictors of attitudes toward transgender Individuals. PSI CHI: Journal of Psychological Research, 24(1), 18-32. https://doi.org/10.24839/2325-7342.JN24.1.18.
Halualani, R. T. (2008). How do multicultural university students define and make sense of intercultural contact? A qualitative study. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 32(1), 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2007.10.006.
Herek, G. M. (1988). Heterosexuals’ attitudes toward lesbians and gay men: Correlates and gender differences. The Journal of Sex Research, 25(4), 451-477. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224498809551476.
Ingthorsson, R. (2013). The natural vs the human sciences: Myth, methodology and ontology. Discusiones Filosóficas, 14(22), 25-41.
Jones, J. M., Dovidio, J. F., & Vietze, D. L. (2014). The psychology of diversity: Beyond prejudice and racism. New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell.
Kite, M. E., Bernard, E., & Whitley, J. (2016). Psychology of prejudice and discrimination (3rd Ed.). London: Routledge.
Lazar, A., & Hammer, J. H. (2018). Religiousness and anti-gay/lesbian attitudes: The mediating function of intratextual religious fundamentalism. Psychology of Violence, 8(6), 763-771. https://doi.org/10.1037/vio0000197.
Lissitsa, S., & Kushnirovich, N. (2019). Harnessing digital media in the fight against prejudice: Social contact and exposure to digital media solutions. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 96(4), 1052-1075. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077699019837938.
Makashvili, A., Vardanashvili, I., & Javakhishvili, N. (2018). Testing intergroup threat theory: Realistic and symbolic threats, religiosity and gender as predictors of prejudice. Europe’s Journal of Psychology, 14(2), 464-484. https://doi.org/10.5964/EJOP.V14I2.1483
Mansur, S. (2017). Homoseksual dalam perspektif agama-agama di Indonesia. Aqlania, 8(1), 21-60. https://doi.org/10.32678/aqlania.v8i01.1020.
Marsden, A. D., & Barnett, M. D. (2020). The role of empathy in the relationship between social political ideology and sexual prejudice in heterosexual college students in the U.S. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 49(5), 1853-1861. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-019-01545-5.
Maunder, R. D., Day, S. C., & White, F. A. (2020). The benefit of contact for prejudice-prone individuals: The type of stigmatized outgroup matters. Journal of Social Psychology, 160(1), 92-104. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224545.2019.1601608.
Mbote, D. K., Mombo, E., Mutongu, Z. B., Alaro, C., Mkutu, A., & Sandfort, T. G. M. (2021). Religious fundamentalism and attitudes towards sexual and gender minorities and other marginalized groups among religious leaders in Kenya. Pastoral Psychology, 70(2), 167-178. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11089-021-00942-9.
Molina, L. E., Tropp, L. R., & Goode, C. (2016). Reflections on prejudice and intergroup relations. Current Opinion in Psychology, 11(1), 120-124. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2016.08.001.
Myers, D. G., & Twenge, J. M. (2018). Social psychology (13th Ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Education.
Nakaya, A. (2017). Overcoming ethnic conflict through multicultural education: The case of West Kalimantan, Indonesia. International Journal of Multicultural Education, 20(1), 118-137. https://doi.org/10.18251/ijme.v20i1.1549.
Nassar, R. (2020). Threat, prejudice, and white americans’ attitudes toward immigration and syrian refugee resettlement. Journal of Race, Ethnicity and Politics, 5(1), 196-220. https://doi.org/10.1017/rep.2019.37.
Nathanael. (2021). Penganut agama dan atheis di Indonesia. Retrieved from https://www.kompasiana.com/gamaken/617ebd2b79b23975491b6df2/penganut-agama-dan-atheis-di-indonesia.
Nawi, S., Syarif, M., Hambali, A. R., & Salle, S. (2019). Understanding to intergroup conflict: Social harmonization and law awareness of society. Substantive Justice International Journal of Law, 2(2), 137-146. https://doi.org/10.33096/substantivejustice.v2i2.45.
Nshom, E., & Croucher, S. (2017). Perceived threat and prejudice towards immigrants in Finland: A study among early, middle, and late Finnish adolescents. Journal of International and Intercultural Communication, 10(4), 309-323. https://doi.org/10.1080/17513057.2017.1312489.
Onraet, E., Van Hiel, A., De keersmaecker, J., & Fontaine, J. R. J. (2017). The relationship of trait emotional intelligence with right-wing attitudes and subtle racial prejudice. Personality and Individual Differences, 110, 27-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2017.01.017.
Pal, S., & Sinha, C. (2016). Religious fundamentalism, right wing authoritarianism and homophobia among Hindus. Indian Journal of Health and Wellbeing, 7(7), 717-721.
Pettigrew, T. F., & Tropp, L. R. (2008). Special issue article how social experience is related to children’s intergroup attitudes. European Journal of Social Psychology, 38, 922-934. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.504.
Pontania, A. R., Mini, R., & Salim, A. (2019). The relation of child’s empathy and parents’ prejudice: The mediating role of parenting style. Humaniora, 10(2), 105-112. https://doi.org/10.21512/humaniora.v10i2.5476.
Putra, N. P. (2019). Tolak LGBT lamar CPNS, Kejagung: Kita tak mau yang aneh-aneh. Retrieved from https://www.liputan6.com/news/read/4116630/tolak-lgbt-lamar-cpns-kejagung-kita-tak-mau-yang-aneh-aneh.
Regus, M. (2020). Interreligious conflicts in post-authoritarian Indonesia: Assumptions, causes, and implications. Jurnal Politik, 5(2), 199-219. https://doi.org/10.7454/jp.v5i2.267.
Schwadel, P., Hardy, S. A., Van Tongeren, D. R., & DeWall, C. N. (2021). The values of religious nones, dones, and sacralized Americans: Links between changes in religious affiliation and Schwartz values. Journal of Personality, 89(5), 867-882. https://doi.org/10.1111/jopy.12620.
Setiawan, T., De Jong, E. B. P., Scheepers, P. L. H., & Sterkens, C. J. A. (2020). The relation between religiosity dimensions and support for interreligious conflict in Indonesia. Archive for the Psychology of Religion, 42(2), 244-261. https://doi.org/10.1177/0084672419878824.
Setyadi, A. (2019). Brunei hukum mati LGBT, bagaimana dengan Aceh? Retrieved from https://news.detik.com/berita/d-4496637/brunei-hukum-mati-lgbt-bagaimana-dengan-aceh.
Stephan, W. G., Ybarra, O., & Morrison, K. R. (2016). Intergroup Threat Theory. In Handbook of Prejudice, Stereotyping, and Discrimination (pp. 255-273).
Sterkenburg, P., Olivier, L., & Van Rensburg, E. (2019). The effect of a serious game on empathy and prejudice of psychology students towards persons with disabilities. African Journal of Disability, 8(1), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.4102/ajod.v8i0.328.
Sudiana, G. N., Ihsan, H., & Nurendah, G. (2020). Kontak antarkelompok dan demografi sebagai prediktor prasangka etnis Sunda terhadap etnis Tionghoa. Mediapsi, 6(2), 145-156. https://doi.org/10.21776/ub.mps.2020.006.02.8.
Sujana, I. N., Setyawati, K. A., & Ujanti, N. M. P. (2018). The existence of the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) community in the perspective of a state based on Pancasila. Mimbar Hukum, 30(1), 127-139. https://doi.org/10.22146/jmh.28655.
Sulistio, Suryanto, Hadziq, A., & Bulut, S. (2020). The mediating effect of group identity and religious fundamentalism on the association of intergroup contact with prejudice. Psikohumaniora: Jurnal Penelitian Psikologi, 5(2), 169-184. https://doi.org/10.21580/pjpp.v5i2.6486.
Takdir, M., Musthafa, M., & Rozinah. (2021). The dynamics of religious conflict in Indonesia: Contestation and resolution of religious conflicts in the new order age. Al-Adyan: Journal of Religious Studies, 2(2), 103-121. https://doi.org/10.15548/al-adyan.v2i2.3184.
Tamir, C., Connaughton, A., & Salazar, A. M. (2020). Is belief in God necessary for good values? Global survey on religion. Retrioeved from https://www.pewresearch.org/global/2020/07/20/the-global-god-divide/.
Tjipto, S., Mayawati, E. H., & Bernardo, A. B. I. (2019). Perceived threat of homosexuals in Indonesia: Construct, measurement, and correlates. Makara Human Behavior Studies in Asia, 23(2), 181-193. https://doi.org/10.7454/hubs.asia.1111219.
Vallejo-Martín, M., Canto, J. M., San Martín García, J. E., & Novas, F. P. (2020). Prejudice and feeling of threat towards syrian refugees: The moderating effects of precarious employment and perceived low outgroup morality. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(17), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176411.
Williams, D. R., Lawrence, J. A., Davis, B. A., & Vu, C. (2019). Understanding how discrimination can affect health. Health Services Research, 54(S2), 1374-1388. https://doi.org/10.1111/1475-6773.13222.
Yafie, M. F., Solicha, & Syahid, A. (2020). Muslim prejudice: Study of the effects of religiosity, fundamentalism, religious quest, and social domination orientation. Advances in Social Science, Education, and Humanities Research, 408, 95-101. https://doi.org/10.2991/assehr.k.200220.017.
Yeck, A. T., & Anderson, V. N. (2018). Homosexuality as haram: Relations among gender, contact, religiosity, and sexual prejudice in muslim individuals. Sex Roles, 8, 192-207. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-018-0989-2.
Copyright (c) 2022 Jessica Chandra, Marselius Sampe Tondok, Soffy Balgies
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
a. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License - Share Alike that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
b. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
c. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.
All articles published Open Access will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download. We are continuously working with our author communities to select the best choice of license options, currently being defined for this journal as follows: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike (CC BY-SA)