Social Problem-Solving in Freshmen: The Role of Emotional Stability, Secure Attachment, Communication Skill, and Self-Esteem
Keywords:communication skill, emotional stability, secure attachment, self-esteem, social problem-solving, freshmen
Freshmen during the pandemic faced some complex problems during their transition, including adjustments to the online lecture system and independent learning, task demands, and limited social interaction with lecturers and classmates. This condition required the ability to solve problems effectively and efficiently. The purpose of the research was to determine how emotional stability, secure attachment, communication skills, and self-esteem influence social problem-solving. Participants were 702 first-year students from university X who were active and domiciled in the Jakarta Greater Area and several other cities. The measuring instruments used were the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised Short-Form, the Self-Esteem Scale, the Interpersonal Communication Scale, the Indonesian version of the Big Five Inventory for neuroticism, and the Secure Attachment Scale. Data were collected through an online questionnaire. The data analysis technique used hierarchical regression. The results show that emotional stability in the form of low neuroticism has a strong effect on social problem-solving, and this effect is stronger when the secure attachment variables and communication skills are taken into the analysis. When self-esteem is included as the last variable, secure attachment no longer affects social problem-solving. However, the total influence is simultaneously getting stronger.
Adams, N., Little, T. D., & Ryan, R. M. (2017). Self-determination theory. In K. A. Wehmeyer, T. D. L. Shogren, & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), Development of Self-Determination Through the Life-Course (pp. 1-303). New York: Springer Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-024-1042-6.
Ahmad, N., Jahan, A., & Imtiaz, N. (2016). Measure of attachment style. The International Journal of Indian Psychology, 3(4), 48-60. https://doi.org/10.25215/0304.082.
Albay, E. M. (2019). Analyzing the effects of the problem solving approach to the performance and attitude of first year university students. Social Sciences & Humanities Open, 1(1), 100006. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssaho.2019.100006.
Arjanggi, R., & Kusumaningsih, L. P. S. (2016). College adjustment of first year students: The role of social anxiety. Journal of Educational, Health and Community Psychology, 5(1), 30-39. https://doi.org/10.12928/jehcp.v5i1.4273.
Arslan, E. (2010). Analysis of communication skill and interpersonal problem solving in preschool trainees. Social Behavior and Personality, 38(4), 523-530. https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.2010.38.4.523.
Arslan, C. (2016). Interpersonal problem solving, self-compassion and personality traits in university students. Educational Research and Reviews, 11(7), 474-481. https://doi.org/10.5897/err2015.2605.
Arslan, G. (2020). Loneliness, college belongingness, subjective vitality, and psychological adjustment during coronavirus pandemic: Development of the college belongingness questionnaire. Journal of Positive School Psychology, 5(1), 17-31. https://doi.org/10.47602/jpsp.v5i1.240.
Arslan, E., Arslan, C., & Ari, R. (2012). An investigation of interpersonal problem solving approaches with respect to attachment styles. Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri, 12(1), 15-23.
Aucejo, E. M., French, J., Ugalde Araya, M. P., & Zafar, B. (2020). The impact of COVID-19 on student experiences and expectations: Evidence from a survey. Journal of Public Economics, 191, 104271. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpubeco.2020.104271.
Bandura, A., Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., Regalia, C., & Scabini, E. (2011). Impact of family efficacy beliefs on quality of family functioning and satisfaction with family life. Applied Psychology, 60(3), 421-448. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.2010.00442.x.
Bilgic, D., Daglar, G., & Aksoy, O. D. (2016). Effects of midwifery education on professional self-esteem and problem solving skills. IOSR Journal of Nursing and Health Science (IOSR - JNHS), 5(6), 68-75. https://doi.org/10.9790/1959-0506026875.
Cam, S., & Alkal, A. (2020). An investigation of interpersonal problem solving in university students in terms of personality traits, resilience and hop. The European Journal of Educational Sciences, 7(1), 15-30. https://doi.org/10.19044/ejes.v7no1a2.
Carlgren, T. (2013). Communication, critical thinking, problem solving: A suggested course for all high school students in the 21st Century. Interchange, 44(1-2), 63-81. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10780-013-9197-8.
Chen, W., Zhang, D., Pan, Y., Hu, T., Liu, G., & Luo, S. (2017). Perceived social support and self-esteem as mediators of the relationship between parental attachment and life satisfaction among Chinese adolescents. Personality and Individual Differences, 108, 98-102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.12.009.
Chow, B. W. Y., Chiu, M. M., & Wong, S. W. L. (2011). Emotional intelligence, social problem-solving skills, and psychological distress: A study of Chinese Undergraduate students. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 41(8), 1958-1980. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.2011.00787.x.
Clarke, J. B., Ford, M., Heary, S., Rodgers, J., & Freeston, M. H. (2017). The relationship between negative problem orientation and worry: A meta-analytic review. Psychopathology Review, 4(3), 319-340. https://doi.org/10.5127/pr.034313.
Cong, C. W., Ling, W. S., & Aun, T. S. (2019). Problem-focused coping and depression among adolescents: Mediating effect of self-esteem. Current Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-019-00522-4.
D’Zurilla, T. J., & Chang, E. C. (1995). The relations between social problem solving and coping. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 19(5), 547-562. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02230513.
D’Zurilla, T. J., Chang, E. C., & Sanna, L. J. (2003). Self-esteem and social problem solving as predictors of aggression in college students. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 22(4), 424-440. https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.22.4.424.22897.
D’Zurilla, T. J., Maydeu-Olivares, A., & Gallardo-Pujol, D. (2011). Predicting social problem solving using personality traits. Personality and Individual Differences, 50(2), 142-147. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2010.09.015.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2012). Self-determination theory. In P. A. M. van Lange, A. W. Kruglanski, & E. T. Higgins (Eds.), Handbook of theories of social psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 416-437). California: Sage Publications, Inc.
Egeci, I. S., & Gencoz, T. (2011). The effects of attachment styles, problem-solving skills, and communication skills on relationship satisfaction. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 30, 2324-2329. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.10.453.
Erozkan, A. (2013). The effect of communication skills and interpersonal problem solving skills on social self-efficacy. Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri, 13(2), 739-745.
Ertekin, Z., & Berument, S. K. (2019). Self-concept development of children in institutional care, alternative care types and biological family homes: Testing differential susceptibility. Applied Developmental Science, 0(0), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1080/10888691.2019.1617146
Griffiths, L. J., Parsons, T. J., & Hill, A. J. (2010). Self-esteem and quality of life in obese children and adolescents: A systematic review. International Journal of Pediatric Obesity, 5(4), 282-304. https://doi.org/10.3109/17477160903473697.
Hall, J. C. (2015). Mother-daughter relationships, self-esteem, and problem solving: Do socialization practices matter? Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 25(2), 137-146. https://doi.org/10.1080/10911359.2014.956960.
Hall, J. C., Crutchfield, J., & Jones, A. E. (2018). Self-esteem, problem solving, and family coping responses: determinants and consequences for black women. Health and Social Work, 44(1), 39-47. https://doi.org/10.1093/hsw/hly034.
Henschel, S., Nandrino, J. L., & Doba, K. (2020). Emotion regulation and empathic abilities in young adults: The role of attachment styles. Personality and Individual Differences, 156, 109763. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2019.109763.
Ibrahim, S. A. E. A. (2011). Factors affecting assertiveness among student nurses. Nurse Education Today, 31(4), 356-360. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2010.07.006
Jang, M. Y., & Kang, G. Y. (2017). Convergent relationships among appearance satisfaction, self-esteem, and problem-solving ability of adolescent. Journal of the Korea Convergence Society, 8(4), 79-87. https://doi.org/10.15207/jkcs.2017.8.4.079.
Kalokerinos, E. K., Murphy, S. C., Koval, P., Bailen, N. H., Crombez, G., Hollenstein, T., Gleeson, J., Thompson, R. J., van Ryckeghem, D. M. L., Kuppens, P., & Bastian, B. (2020). Neuroticism may not reflect emotional variability. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 117(17), 9270-9276. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1919934117.
Khanh, N. C. (2019). Development of the teacher rating scale of interpersonal problem solving in adolescents. Current Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-019-00427-2.
Koruklu, N. (2015). Personality and social problem-solving: The mediating role of self-esteem. Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri, 15(2), 481-487. https://doi.org/10.12738/estp.2015.2.2601.
Krasilnikov, A., & Smirnova, A. (2017). Online social adaptation of first-year students and their academic performance. Computers and Education, 113, 327-338. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2017.05.012.
Kumaraswamy, N. (2013). Depression, anxiety, and academic stress among college students: A brief review. International Review of Social Sciences and Humanities, 5(1), 135-143.
Lau, Y. (2014). Factors affecting the social problem-solving ability of baccalaureate nursing students. Nurse Education Today, 34(1), 121-126. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2012.10.010.
Lau, Y., Fang, L., Cheng, L. J., & Kwong, H. K. D. (2019). Volunteer motivation, social problem solving, self-efficacy, and mental health: A structural equation model approach. Educational Psychology, 39(1), 112-132. https://doi.org/10.1080/01443410.2018.1514102.
Lovimi, S., Nazarzadeh, F., Moini, F., Aminyazdi, A., & Rostaee, M. (2018). The relation of attachment styles and problem solving skills to resiliency in treatment-seeking substance dependents. Journal of Research and Health, 8(3), 210-217. https://doi.org/10.29252/jrh.8.3.210.
Marcotte, D., Diallo, T. M. O., & Paré, M. L. (2018). Adjustment to college and prediction of depression during post-secondary transition. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 33(4), 727-748. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10212-017-0346-9.
McKay, M., & Fanning, P. (2016). Self esteem (4th Ed.). California: New Harbinger Publications, Inc. https://doi.org/10.1088/1751-8113/44/8/085201.
McMurran, M., Egan, V., Blair, M., & Richardson, C. (2001). The relationship between social problem-solving and personality in mentally disordered offenders. Personality and Individual Differences, 30(3), 517-524. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(00)00050-7.
Minarsi, M., Nirwana, H., & Syukur, Y. (2017). Kontribusi motivasi menyelesaikan masalah dan komunikasi interpersonal terhadap strategi pemecahan masalah siswa sekolah menengah. JPPI (Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan Indonesia), 3(2), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.29210/02017113.
Monti, J. D., Rudolph, K. D., & Abaied, J. L. (2014). Contributions of maternal emotional functioning to socialization of coping. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 31(2), 247-269. https://doi.org/10.1177/0265407513492304.
Myszkowski, N., Storme, M., Davila, A., & Lubart, T. (2015). Managerial creative problem solving and the Big Five personality traits. Journal of Management Development, 34(6), 674-684. https://doi.org/10.1108/JMD-12-2013-0160.
Nezu, A. M., Nezu, C. M., & D’Zurilla, T. J. (2013). Problem-solving therapy : a treatment manual. New York: Springer Publishing.
Nielsen, S. K. (2017). Posture and social problem solving, self-esteem, and optimism. International Journal of Psychological Studies, 9(4), 44-52. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijps.v9n4p44.
Oldmeadow, J. A., Quinn, S., & Kowert, R. (2013). Attachment style, social skills, and Facebook use amongst adults. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(3), 1142-1149. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2012.10.006.
Park, H., & Antonioni, D. (2007). Personality, reciprocity, and strength of conflict resolution strategy. Journal of Research in Personality, 41(1), 110-125. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2006.03.003.
Parrigon, K. S., Kerns, K. A., Abtahi, M. M., & Koehn, A. (2015). Attachment and emotion in middle childhood and adolescence. Psihologijske Teme, 24(1), 27-50.
Puggina, A. C., & Da Silva, M. J. P. (2014). Interpersonal communication competence scale: Brazilian translation, validation and cultural adaptation. Acta Paulista de Enfermagem, 27(2), 108-114. https://doi.org/10.1590/1982-0194201400020.
Putra, I. G. N. E., Karin, P. A. E. S., & Ariastuti, N. L. P. (2019). Suicidal ideation and suicide attempt among Indonesian adolescent students. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 31(3), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2019-0035.
Ramdhani, N. (2012). Adaptasi bahasa dan budaya inventori big five. Jurnal Psikologi, 39(2), 189-207. https://doi.org/10.22146/jpsi.6986.
Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
Samadi, M., & Sohrabi, N. (2016). Mediating role of the social problem solving for family process, family content, and adjustment. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 217, 1185-1188. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.02.141.
Segrin, C., & Flora, J. (2005). Family communication. London: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.1088/1751-8113/44/8/085201.
Sheldon, K. M. (2012). The self-determination theory perspective on positive mental health across cultures. World Psychiatry, 11(2), 101-102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wpsyc.2012.05.017.
Shogren, K. A., & Wehmeyer, M. L. (2017). Problem solving. In M. L. Wehmeyer, K. A. Shogren, T. D. Little, & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), Development of Self-Determination through the Life-Course (pp. 451–460). New York: Springer Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-024-1042-6.
Sorsdahl, K., Stein, D. J., & Myers, B. (2015). Psychometric properties of the social problem solving inventory-Revised short-form in a South African population. International Journal of Psychology, 52(2), 154-162. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijop.12192.
Srivastava, P., & Kiran, M. (2015). The relationship between perceived stress, self esteem, way of coping and problem solving ability among school going adolescents. Journal of Psychosocial Research, 10(2), 199-209.
Tarasova, S. I., Dukhina, T. N., Limonova, O. O., Kolesnikova, T. V., & Makhova, I. N. (2017). Socio-psychological adaptation of first- Year university students. Espacios, 38(56), 1-6.
Thoma, P., Friedmann, C., & Suchan, B. (2013). Empathy and social problem solving in alcohol dependence, mood disorders and selected personality disorders. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 37(3), 448-470. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2013.01.024.
Trunzo, J. J., Samter, W., Morse, C., McClure, K., Kohn, C., Volkman, J. E., & O’Brien, K. (2014). College students’ use of energy drinks, social problem-solving, and academic performance. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 46(5), 396-401. https://doi.org/10.1080/02791072.2014.965291.
Villatte, A., Marcotte, D., & Potvin, A. (2017). Correlates of depression in first-year college students. Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 47(1), 114-136. https://doi.org/10.47678/cjhe.v47i1.186429.
Walker, K. L., Chang, E. C., & Hirsch, J. K. (2017). Neuroticism and suicidal behavior: Conditional indirect effects of social problem solving and hopelessness. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 15(1), 80-89. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-016-9648-4.
Walker, O. L., & Henderson, H. A. (2012). Temperament and social problem solving competence in preschool: Influences on academic skills in early elementary school. Social Development, 21(4), 761-779. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9507.2011.00653.x.
Widiger, T. A., & Oltmanns, J. R. (2017). Neuroticism is a fundamental domain of personality with enormous public health implications. World Psychiatry, 16(2), 144-145. https://doi.org/10.1002/wps.20411.
Yulikhah, S., Bukhori, B., & Murtadho, A. (2019). Self concept, self efficacy, and interpersonal communication effectiveness of student. Psikohumaniora: Jurnal Penelitian Psikologi, 4(1), 65-76. https://doi.org/10.21580/pjpp.v4i1.3196
Copyright (c) 2021 Nurul Qomariyah, Mrs. Dona, Mr. Wahyu, Mrs. Kenes, Mrs. Quroyzhin
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
a. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License - Share Alike that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
b. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
c. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.
All articles published Open Access will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download. We are continuously working with our author communities to select the best choice of license options, currently being defined for this journal as follows: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike (CC BY-SA)