BFC Method For Prediction of Transient Head on Seepage Path


  • Sherly Hartono Bina Nusantara University



BFC method, critical head, flood, free surface, levee, piping, seepage


Seepage causes weakening of levees and can cause levee failure or overtopping due to levee settlement. A numerical method, called the boundary fitted coordinate (BFC) method, was developed to determine seepage through a levee and the transient head on the seepage path due to the changing water level during a flood. The BFC transforms the physical coordinate system into a computational curvilinear coordinate system. The grid generated in this method accurately represents the boundary of the system regardless of its complexity.



Plum Analytics


Bear, J. (1972). Dynamics of Fluids in Porous Media, New York: Elsevier.

Cividini, A., & Gioda, G. (1989) On the variable mesh finite element analysis of unconfined seepage problems, Geotechnique, vol. 39, no.2, pp. 251.

Harr, M.E. (1962) Groundwater and Seepage, New York: McGraw-Hill.

Herbert, R. (1965), “An Analogue study of a ground-water lowering scheme”, Tech Paper 41, Water Research Association, Medmenham, UK.

Liggett, J.A. (1977) Location of Free Surface in Porous Media, Journal of Hydraulic Division, American Society of Civil Engineers vol. 103, pp. 353-65.

Neuman, S.P., & Witherspoon, P.A. (1970) Finite Element Method of Analyzing Steady Seepage with a Free Surface, Water Resources Research, vol. 6 no.3, pp. 889-897.

Polubarinova-Kochina, P.Y. (1962) Theory of Ground Water Movement, translated from Russian by R.J.M. de Weist, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Saitou, M., Kanda, E., & Kawashima, M. (1991) A Numerical Solution of the Steady Solidification Problem in Two Dimensions by Boundary Fitted Coordinate Systems, Journal of Computational Physics, vol. 94, no. 1, pp. 138.

Saitou, M. & Hirata, A. (1992). Two Dimensional Unsteady Solidification of Problem Calculated by Using the Boundary Fitted Coordinate System, Journal of Computational Physics, vol. 100, no. 1, pp. 188.

Saitou, M. & Hirata, A. (1992). Numerical Solution of the Unsteady Solidification Problem with a Solute Element by Using the Boundary Fitted Coordinate System, Numerical Heat Transfer, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 63.

Thompson, J.F., Thames, F.C., & Mastin, C.W. (1977). Boundary-fitted Curvilinear Coordinate Systems for the Solution of Partial Differential Equations on Fields Containing Any Number of Arbitrary Two-dimensional Bodies, NASA CR-2729, National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Thompson, J.F. & Warsi, Z.U.A. (1982). Boundary-fitted Coordinate Systems for Numerical Solution of Partial Differential Equations–a review, Journal of Comp.Phys., vol. 47, pp. 1-108.

Todd, D.K. (1959). Ground Water Hydrology, New York: Wiley.

Todsen, M. (1971) On the Solution of Transient Free-Surface Flow Problems in Porous Media by Finite Difference Methods, Journal of Hydrology, vol. 12 pp. 170-210.






Abstract 187  .
PDF downloaded 86  .