The Rohingya Muslim in the Land of Pagoda

Leni Winarni


Regarding Southeast Asia as a multi-ethnics region, this paper attempts to examine about why Buddhist Community turns into religious violence against Rohingyas in the State of Rakhine (formerly known as Arakan). Through understanding the triggers of conflicts, this paper applies historical perspective to analyze why ethnic-religious conflict occur nowadays between Buddhist and Rohingya in Myanmar. This paper also discusses how the influence of history has constructed the government’s policy under military regime to exclude Rohingya. However, the ethno-religious conflict is either an indication of a weak state or failure state in managing diversity.

Key words: Ethnic-

Full Text:



Ahmed, Imtiaz. (2010). The Plight of the Stateless Rohingya: Responses of the State, Society & the International Community. Bangladesh: University Press Ltd.

Appadurai, Arjun. (2006) Fear of Small Numbers: an Essay on the Geography of Anger. London Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press

Bartels, Dieter. Your God Is No Longer Mine: Moslem-Christian Fratricide in the Central Moluccas (Indonesia) After a Half- Millennium of Tolerant Co-Existence and Ethnic Unit. Retrieved December 15, 2015, from lications/articles/yourgod.html.

Bayefsky, Anne F (ed.). (2005). Human Rights and Refugees Internally Displaced Persons and Migrant Workers: Essay in Memory of Joan Fitzpatrick and Arthur Helton. MartinusNijhoff Publisher and VSP.

Cabbalero-Anthony,Melly.(Ed.). (2016). An Introduction to Non-Traditional Security Studies: A Transnational Approach. Sage Publication Ltd.

Christian, John L. (1942). Burma: Strategic and Political. Far Eastern Survey, 11, 40-44.

Dittmer, Lowell. (Ed.). (2010). Burma or Myanmar? The Struggle for National Identity. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Company.

Gibson, Trevor., James, H., & Falvey, L. (Eds.). (2016). Rohingyas: Insecurity and Citizenship in Myanmar. Thaksin University Press.

Harris, Erika. (2009). Nationalism: Theories and Cases (1st Ed). Edinburgh University Press

Hasenclever, Andreas and Volker Rittberger. 2000. Does Religion Make a Difference? Theoretical Approaches to the Impact of Faith on Political Conflict, Millennium. Journal of International Studies, 29, 641-674.

Hohmeyer, Ursula. (2014). Burma in Transition: But Buddha is Never in a Hurry. German: Books On Demand.

International Crisis Group. (2014). United Nations High Commision for Refugees, 2000. Myanmar: The Politic of Rakhine State Asia Report N 261 2014. Retrieved December 10, 2015, from stories/PDF13/kaiser-obrien.pdf.

Jonassohn, Kurt., & Björnson, Karin Solveig. (1998).Genocide and GrossHuman Rights Violations: In Comparative Perspective. New Jersey: Transaction Publishers.

Kingsbury, Damien., & Laoutides, Costas.(Eds.). (2015). Territorial Separatism in Global Politics: Causes, Outcomes, and Resolution. Routledge.

Mason,Robert.(Ed.). (2016). Muslim Minority-State Relations, Violence, Integration, and Policy. Palgrave.

Minahan, James. (2012).Ethnic Groups of South Asia and the Pacific: An Encyclopedia (Ethnic Group of the World (Kindle Edition). ABC-CLIO.

Mouffe, Chantal. (2013). Agonistic, Thinking the World Politically. London:Versabook.

Seekins, Donald M. (2010).State and Society in Modern Rangoon (Asia’s Transformations). Routledge.

Sidasathian, Miss Chutima. (2014). Rohingya: The persecution of people in Southeast Asia, CreateSpace Independent. Publishing Platform; Lrg edition.

Shah, Timothy Samuel., Stepan, Alfred., & Toft, Monica Duffy.(Eds.). (2012). Rethinking Religion and World Affairs. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Selth, Andrew. (1986). Race and Resistance in Burma, 1942-1945. Modern Asian Studies, 20, 483-507.

Sen, Atreyee. (2010). Method and Theory, The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 16, 439- 440.

Seul, Jeffrey R. (1999). Ours Is the Way of God': Religion, Identity, and Intergroup Conflict. Journal of Peace Research. 36, 553-569.

Tikhonov, Vladimir. (Ed.). (2015). Buddhism and Violence: Militarism and Buddishm in Modern Asia. Routledge.

Thwe, Pascal Khoo. (2003). From the Land of Green Ghosts: A Burmese Odyssey. Harper Perennial.

Topich, William J., & Leitich, Keith A. (2013). The History of Myanmar. California: Greenwood.

United Nations High Commision for refugees. (2000). State of thethe World’s Refugees, The Fifty Years of Humanitarian Action (1st ed.). Oxford University Press.

Veen, Rianne Ten. (2005). Myanmar's Muslims: The Oppressed of the Oppressed, Islamic Human Rights Commission.

Ventura, Marco. (2014). From Your Gods to Our Gods: A History of Religion in Indian, South African, and British Courts, Eugene. Oregon: Cascade Books.

Yegar, Moshe. (2002). Between Integration and Secession: The Muslim Communities of the Southern Philippines, Southern Thailand, and Western Burma/Myanmar. Lexington Books

Zimmerman, Michael. (2006). Buddhism and Violence (Publications of the Lumbini International Research Institute Nepal). Reichert Verlag.




  • There are currently no refbacks.


JAS (Journal of ASEAN Studies)

Department of International Relations, Faculty of Humanities

BINUS University, Kijang Campus

Jl Kemanggisan Ilir No. 45 Palmerah, Jakarta, Indonesia 11480


Visitor Numbers:

Public view

Creative Commons License
Journal of ASEAN Studies is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.


Indexed By

Related image